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7*. P.H. Orleatai SerUa Nit. fO 


AN ENQLISH TRANSLATION 

OP 

yoga-sara-sangeaha 

OP 

VIJMNA BHIKSU 


BY 

ganqanatha jha 


{.Uemsed Edition) 


theosophioal publishing House 
Adtar, Madras, Ikdia 




prkeace to the revised EKmOH 


TeS YOQA-aiSA-SAHOBAHA was translateii 
ty me immediately after I left Collage ifl 
1892, It was published by my friend the 
late Tookaram Tatya of Bombay. About 
8^6 or six years ago I paid ray first debt 
to schokta by revising my earlier defective 
trapsktion of Ksvi/aprdlgc; now I am 
paying the second instalnient of the same 
debt by revising my eaiber translation of this 
excellent treatise on Yoga. In the whole 
course of my study, I have not come across 
a better treatise to he placed m the hands of 
either ‘ students ’ of or ' aspirants ’ to ‘ Toga 


GanoMtha Jea 





TOGA-SlEA-SANGEAHA 


(An En^tsk Tmnslation) 


SEorroN I 

form: and aim of yoga 

All obeisance to Him who after having— 
from Hia body of the Great Dlusion made up 
of Harmony, Enei^y and Inertia [Sattva, 
Jtajas and ITomas)— created the Great Principle 
{Mahal), the (all-embracing) thread named 
Buddhi (Spiritual Consciousness), constituting 
(the forms of) BtahmS, Visnu and Siva, brmgs 
about, in the character of the Supreme Being, 
this cosmos by means of the same body, like 
the spider, and then binds together His 
emanations in the cosmos as the spider does 
msects emanating from itself. 



2 


TOGA-SiSA-SA&GBAHA 


Wo oficr rovoronco by word, mind and body 
to the E§38 Paianjali (author of the Toga 
Sotras), Yy5sa (author of the Bha^ya on the 
Sotras) and other Teachers of Toga, as also 
to the other Masters (of the system) — all 
of -whom are so many Suns as it were for 
the removal of the darkness of ignorance. 

Having churned the Ocean of Yoga by 
means of the firm rod in the shape of the 
Varttika (the Yogavfirttxka), I have taken out 
this OBSonoe of noeiar (the matter m this work) 
—which I am now putting in (the form of) a 
hook, aa if it were in a jar. 

The deSninon of Yoga applying to both 
kinds of It (the SajnprajflQta and the AsamprO” 
jJiSta) may be thus staled; “Yoga is that 
inhibition of the functions of tho Mind which 
leads to the absolute abidance of the Spirit 
(Purwsa) in his real nature.” The partial 
inhibition of mental functions during the 
ordinary active stages does not lead to that 
liberation which consists of absolute abidance 
in one’s real nature ; because such partial 
inhibition does not finally uproot the seeds of 
rebirth in the form of the troiihles of hfe, — and 
further because it docs not put a final stop 



FORM AND AIM OF YOGA 3 

to tho impressions (SarfisAara) produced by all 
tbo functions of tbo mind ; consequently tho 
aforesaid defimtiQn docs not extend to this 
partial inhibition. Tho word absolute in the 
definition serves to differentiate the meditative 
mmd-inhlbition from tho suppressjon of func- 
tions consequent upon Universal Dissolution 
(nc., this latter suppro'^sion is not absolute m 
as much aa tho functions recur again at the 
following creation, which is not the case with 
the suppression duo to meditation). By 
abidance tn hts real nature is meant the 
oessatioQ of the conditioned (hence transient) 
form,— or, (which is the same) the non*ces8atioii 
of the real form. As eays the : *' Libera* 
tion consists in abidance m one's real form 
after the abandonment of its contrary (the 
unreal conditioned fonn).’’ 

Conscious or Concrete Meditation (5a?«pra- 
jMta Samadhi) is a means of liberation in as 
much as it leads to the perception of the truth 
and thereby puts an end to all troubles of 
life and the like (which are causes of rebirth, 
etc.). And Unconscious or Abstract Meditation 
{AsamprajMta samSdht) is also a means of 
liberation in as much as it destroys the 



4 Y0GA-3ABA'SANGRAHA 

impressions iSfttnskHra) of all antecedent 
(mental) functions, and even goes so far as 
to tide over even Prarabdba (the forces already 
sat going by the man’s past) ; lt.e., this 
unconsoious meditation is so very effective 
that It sets the epmt free even though all the 
fruition of his past karma has not ended]. 
All this we have explained at length in the 
yQga-vS.rttika [Pada I.shtras 17 and 18] ; and 
we shall hrielly explain it in this work alfco 
later on. The word “ Toga ” is also applicable 
in its secondary implication to the factors 
of yoga (the different actions that go 
to make up Yoga) as also to Knowledge, 
Devotion, Action and the rest, in as much 
as they are conducive to the fulfilment 
of yoga, and as such indirectly lead to 
Liberation. 

■Wliicli are the mental functions to bo 
M«nui taneiieni inhibited? And wliot is Meant 
by ' inhibition ' ? 

I "We reply. Tlie fivo mental functions are ; 
Right Cognition (Pramaija), Misconception 
(pjpflryaya), Raney {Vtkalpa), Sleop-cognition 
{jfUdrS), Bemembronco (SmrtO. Tho inhibiting 

ol suci^ TOwAal ivmAvsas, r* Anttor. 



FORM AND AIM OF YOGA 5 

and tliB liko follow from the inhibiting of 
the said functions of Right Cognition, etc. 

The Right Cognitions are — Perception, 
Inference and Verbal Cognition. When the 
mind functions through the sense-organs and 
in strict accordance with the real state of 
things, there is Kght Cognition in the form 
of Perception. In order to include the notion 
of the existence of God, we have to supplement 
the above definition by making it imply ‘ the 
class (Jati) of such perception’ [ie., by 
explaining the definition as meaning that 
a Perception is that which belongs to 
the class of mental functions which operate 
through the senses. For, though the notion 
of God is not acquired directly through the 
senses, yet it belongs to the class of such 
functions]. By tbo function of the Buddhi 
is meant the foremost point of it, like the 
point of the flame of a lamp. It is with this 
fact in -new that we speak of the (con- 
centration of tho) mtnd on a single point. It 
is this foremost point which coming into 
contact with the external objects, through the 
senses, assumes the form of such ob]ects, liko 
rnaltsd copper poured into a crucible ; as says 



6 yoga-saba-sangraha 

the Sahkhija-Sutra '* The Function is different 
both from a Part and A.ttribute, and moves 
forward (towards the object) in order to 
establish its connection therewith.” [SQhkhya- 
Sutra, V, 107.] Since the Buddhi moves to* 
wards the objects of sense in order to establish 
its connection therewith, therefore the function, 
being soniothing separated from the Buddhii 
cannot be regarded as a part of this Buddhi ; 
just as the sparks thrown out by the Fire 
are not regarded as part of that Fire ; nor 
can it like Desire, etc., he an attribute of 
Buddhi, because action can belong to a 
substance only (and not to an attribute, and 
here of Function, we find an potion,— that of 
proceeding to the objects of sense,— hence this 
Function cannot be an attribute). "When this 
function appears as reflected in the Spirit, 
we have the riglit cognition in the shape 
of perceptional Cognition os a resultant 
of the means of Cognition (sonso-contact) 
—this resultant is what is called ' Right 
Cognition' (Prauifl). This fact is other* 
wise explained as the conformity {Sarup’jci) 
of tlio spectator (Spirit) with the said 
.Function. 



FOBM xm> AIM OF YOGA 7 

rho function brought about by (the know- 
ledge of the relation of) a certain indicative 
IS * Inference ’ That brought about by a 
word 18 Verbal Cognition The resultant of 
all these functions is the Spirits Cognition of 
things, all mslruments being operative only 
for some purpose of the Spirit ^ 

Misconception is wrong cognition brought 
about by sorae defect (either m the object 
itself or m the meaos leading to it) 

As instances of Fancy v .6 have such 
ideas as 'Head of R&hu, Hbe intolligence 
of Purufa ' ® The difference of Fancy 
from Misconception lies in the fact 
that the forr^er is not removable by a 
careful observation of the object, as the 
latter is 

The function of Sleep Cognition consists of 
experiences during deep sleep giving rise to 
such notions as “I have alept soundly ‘and 
the like 

' Cf SSnkhya KHrikS— ^ 

‘ Thoee are said to be foaoifal because Bjbu la nothing 
more than the head aod Fuiuea le uothiag more than 
vat^igsivoe iteeU 



8 


YOGA-SARA-SANGRAHA 


Remembrance is a function brought about 
entirely by a residunm or irapression (5'oms' 
fcara — due to former experiences). 

Thus have the various functions been des- 
cribed. 

To explain ‘ Inhibition By ‘ inhibition ' we 

in^ibiiioa not mean either destruction, 

RaedaBdexpUiMj. qj. ‘negation in general,’ be- 
cause our eyatem does not admit of mere 
negation ; and further because (if inhibition 
meant negation) it would be impossible for 
it to bring about a residuum or momentum (to 
bear fruit in due course of time) which we 
shall have occasion to speak of later on. What 
we mean is that tbo ‘Function’ and the 
‘inhibition of the Mind,’ respectively, are only 
‘ activity ’ and ‘ cessation from activity,' — 
being like advanarg towards and recedinff 
from, its objective ; and both these arc brought 
about by the effort of the Spirit. Our reason for 
saying this is (1) that if ‘ activity ‘ and * cessa- 
tion from activity’ wore only mutual nega- 
tions, there would bo nothing to determine 
what is what and (2) that, there could not 
be the three states of the mind in the forms 
of ' activity,' ' cessation from activity ' and 



FORil AND AIM OF YOGA 


9 


‘passivity*. Thus these, both being eciually 
positive entities, impressions are produced by 
‘ Inhibition ' (when thore is cessation from 
activity), just as they are by the ' Functions *. 
Further, if we did not accept the view that 
impressions gain strength day by day, there 
could be no grounds for believing that Yoga 
gains in strength with the advance of time. 

Wo have provided a general definition of 
Yoga. We now proceed to 
tkn particulars. Yoga is of two 

kinds (1) Conscious or Concrete, and (2) Un- 
conscioug or Abstract. Of these two, Concrete 
Meditation is that in which the object of 
rnedltatlon Is properly perceived, directly 
cognised ; that is to say. it is the inhibition 
of all functions (of the mind) save the one 
related to the object of meditation. Hence the 
principal charactenstic of Concrete Meditation 
consists in its being tlie inhibition which is 
accompanied by its effect in the shape of the 
direct perception of the obj'ect of meditation. 
The latter qualification — ‘accompanied, etc.’ — 
is added in order to differentiate it from that 
inhibition (of funcltmis} which is consequent 
upon wniv^nsaJ djasrlutMa? and aiso from 



10 


TOGA-SABA-SANGBAHA 


accompanying the three different forms of 
‘ one*pointedness’ or concentration in Steadi- 
ness {DhSraiiU}, Contemplation {Dhy^lTiQ), and 
Communion {SamMhi}. The inhibition attend- 
ant upon these last three does not bring 
about the direct perception (of 'the object 
of meditation, the Supreme Spirit), because 
such perception is impeded by stronger in- 
clinations towards other objects, as also by 
Adharma (Evil) which yields only to 
the force of Dkama (Good) produced by 
Meditation (Fopo). Concrete Meditation, on 
the contrary— which consists in the inhibition 
of all the functions save the one related to the 
object of meditation, — is such that the 
impediment caused by the presence of 
other objects being removed, all inclination 
towards such objects is suppressed,, nnd a 
peculiar Dharma (merit) is produced, which 
makes concrete meditation the cause of direct 
perception of its object. The mind is, from its 
, very nature, capable of com- 

The all pervading ^ 

^aracter of the preliendJug all objects, and (as 
such) is all-pervading- It 
however not always able to apprehend all 
things because of the veil of Inertia or 



FORM AND ADI OF YOGA 11 

Darkness (irama5)Bpreadingoverit. Thus when 
meditation in the form of inhibition destroys 
the augraantors of this inertia (Tamas )., — in the 
form of the presence of other objects and the 
inclination (of the agent) towards them, and 
(the various forms of) Adharma (Evil) — , the 
object of meditation presents itself to the 
perception of tho mind. Such is tho approved 
doctrine of the Science of Yoga. The four 
kinds of concrete meditation will be described 
later on. 

We proceed to define Abstract Meditation 
{AsamprajfiQla). Abstract 
Meditation, literally meamuff 
that in which oil consciousness 
disappears — consists in the inhibition of all the 
functions (of the Mind). During this medi- 
tation there is no other troce of the 
Mind save the impressions left behind (by 
its past fuDctioning.s). If these impressions 
were not there, there would be no possibility 
of the subsequent revival of consciousness. 
Tho definition theroforo of this Meditation is 
that it consists in the inhibition of all functions, 
while being not-destaruotive of the impression of 
true knowledge ; this latter qualification being 



12 YOGA-SARA-SANGRAHA 

necessary in order to exclude tho inhibition 
consequent upon Universal Dissolution. 

Now we describe the result of meditation, 
because it is tho most important factor of all. 
Tho result which is common to both kinds of 
Meditation (the Concrete and tKo Abstract) 
is (1) the perceptible effect of Concrete Medi- 
tation in the shape of the cessation of the 
experiencing of pain duo to the various 
functions (of the mind) brought about by the 
inhibition of those functions,— (2) the imper- 
ceptible effect of Concrete Meditation, in the 
shape of the direct perception of the object of 
contemplation (Supreme Spirit) through the 
aforesaid means ; as is laid down in the 
Sutra: “To one whose functions have been 
suppressed, there ,come a concentration and 
consubstantiation in (matters relating to) the 
perceiver, the means of perception and the 
object perceived, as m a transparent gem.” 
[Yoga-Sutra, 1, 41.] This (perception of the 
Supreme Spirit) brings about the cessation of 
Ignorance and the pain due to other *' troubles ” 
wliiuh leads to hberarion ; and if there is some 
(desire for worldly pleasures) still loft behind, 
the conduct of the agent proceeds unimpeded, on 



FORM AND AIM OF YOGA 


13 


account of tho olomonts, tlio sonso organs and 
Nature having been conquercid (by him) Tho 
specific imperceptiblo effect of Unconscious or 
Abstract Meditation on tho other hand is tho 
quick voluntary hbcralion consequent upon tho 
burning up of the residua of actions whose 
fruition has coninionced, as also of all residua 
(SamaAdra) in common with that of Know- 
ledge of Truth To explain Knowlego of Truth 
{Tattm-’jFtQTia) cannot snpersodo either its own 
residuum or impression (&;/i 8 /.aro) or the 
. . residua of action whoso frui- 

ct Priribiiht by tton has coHimcnceu , because 
ICcowlcdfi^ 

there is no incompatibility 
between Knowledge of Thith and these latter , 
and also because the Sruti — ‘J.The delay being 
only 80 long as there is no liberation , and 
when this occurs final beatitude (is attained) 
[ChCLTidogya Upantsad VI-XIV, 2 ]— bears testi- 
mony to a certain amount of delay (in the 
process of Liberation through Knowledge) duo 
to the residua of actions whose fruiiaon has 
commenced (and not yet ended) , the dcstruo 
tion of such residua by Knowledge being 
repugnant to all ^raf» and texts treating 
ofi Jivanmukta (a * Liberated during Life ) , 



14 


yOGA-SABA-SAiTGRAHA 


and lastly because such destruotibility of 
residua has been clearly denied by the Vedanta 
Sutras, There is no such denial or incon- 
gruity however in the case of the destruction 
of the said operative residua by means of 
meditation : hence “ when a yogin has attained 
the (last) perfect (stage of) meditation — the 
fire whereof has burnt off all the residua of 
his actions, he, without delay attains to 
liberation in that very life Tho absence of 
delay mentioned in this passage bears test!* 
mony to the capability of Yoga to destroy tho 
■‘operative residua’ (iVflroMAo). Therefore, 
an agent who desires to supersede the 
Prarabdfui (operative residua) and thus attain 
quick liberation, stands in need of Unconscious 
or Abstract Meditation (Asamprajriata Samci’ 
dht) even after attaining the Knowledge 
of Truth. In the Varittka we have gone 
into the details of this theory. Tho above 
theory docs not in any way vitiate the theory 
that even in Ibo absence of Unconscious 
Meditation, tho fruition of the rosidua of 
actions having ended, liberation is attained 
by those who have attained tho knowledge of 
Truth. The truth of tluB theory is homo out hy 



FORM AITD ABI OF YOGA 


15 


the passag:e “ Tasya tavadeva, etc. " (from the 
Chandogya JJpanisad, quoted above). And 
when ignorance has been removed, there being 
no seed (of rebirth), the (cycle of) rebirth is 
necessarily stopped. The word ‘ Vimoksye' 
in the Sruti means that the agent becomes free 
from the shackles of the ‘ operative residua 
The following may be urged (by the 
objector) : “ In the Smrti we 
#. tk« nieet with passages like this— 

dSIllSyoVit ' Sre of msditation quickly 

consumes all the foulness due 
to Evi) ; and then there follows 
that knowledge which directly leads to the per- 
fection of NirvSna* — which distinctly state the 
capability of meditation to destroy the residua 
of action ; and we may take all these as refer- 
ring to Concrete Meditation (and not to Uncon- 
scious Meditation, as you would have it).” 

(Wo reply); Not so: The passage just 
Repiy-ii.« iti. Quoted implies the destruction, 
trnaiaa meant k»r« fay mcans of Ooucrcto Modi- 

II intt of enl 

•tandint lo the wey tatioH of Only tllOSO GVjls 

of ksovfledge. ... , 

that Stand in the way of 
knowledge, and not of all actions (good or 
bad). For (if the latter were the case) then 



16 


YOQA-SARA-SAITGRAHA 


we could not reconcile the above passage 
with the destruction of all the actions by 
‘^wisdovt mentioned in the Bhagavad-Glia "The 
fire of wisdom, 0 Arjuna, burns out all 
actions Because all actions having been 
destroyed by Conscious Meditation which leads 
to (and thus precedes) the acquirement of 
wisdom (there wonld be no trace of action left 
whioh could be ‘ burnt ’ by the ‘ fire of wisdom ')• 
The capability of Meditation to destroy all 
actions mentioned in a passage above quoted— 
"the agent having all, his actions burnt by 
the fire of meditation, etc.”— must therefore be 
taken as referring to Unconscious Meditation. 
Thus then we cannot re«>ncile these t^vo 
passages if both are taken as referring to 
Conscious Meditation. Therefore the meaning 
of the passage — "having hisactions burnt, etc." 
— must bo that the 'operative residua ’ofactions 
is destructible only by Unconscious Meditation, 
and not either by Conscious Jleditation or 
the knowledge proceeding from it. Farther, 
all that is meant by the “ destruction ” of 
actions, either by meditation or wisdom, is 
that they arc rendered Incapable of producing 
their ofTocts, on account of tho removal of 



FORM AND AIM OF YOGA 


17 


their auxiliaries this also is what is meant 
hy the ‘burning’ {of actioiw). To explain: 
When the ‘ troubles* or ‘ impediments ’ in the 
farm of Ignorance and the rest are destroyed by 
Knowledge, actions are rendered incapable of 
Clearing any results, by the very fact of the 
removal of their auxiliaries, in the shape of 
tho said ‘ impediments Because the S«fra — 
“The roots existing, the developments follow, 
6tc” [yopc-iS’ufm, II, 13J— distinctly lays 
down the theory that the developments 
(effects) of actions begin only when their 
‘ root ‘ — trouble — exists. VySsa aleo explains 
the Siitra to the same effect Therefore (w’e 
conclude) that tho passages epeaking of the 
' clestciiotion of actions’ hy Knowledge only 
Serve to reiterate what appears to follow from 
reasonings. In tho same manner Uncohscinns 
Meditation also eorvps to remove the ‘auxi- 
liary to actions’ in tho form of tho desires or 
tendencies leading up to the experiencing (of 
pleasure or pain). Becauso tho fact of the 
suppression of tho active ‘ tcndencios ’ (includ- 
ing Iho conditions of Agitation and Ignorance) 
by tho Inhibilivo * tondoncies' is borne out by 
tho SMra and the BhOaija as well as by our 



18 YOGA-SABA-SANGEAHA 

own cxperioftce. Thus then what follows is 
that when Unconscious Meditation has gradu- 
ally destroyed all ‘ tendencies.' the 'operative 
residua ' also are no longer capable of bringing 
about their effects ; because both the Sutra and 
the BhQaya have declared that tho presence of 
‘ Tendencies ’ is a necessary auxiliary to karmic 
residua ; hence what is destroyed is only that 
part of the operative residua whose fruition 
has coramenced bat not ended, and this latter 
falls off by reason of its substratum in the 
shape of the Mind. The pur{»s© of the Spirit 
being the sole condition for the subsistence of 
the mind, It naturally falls off when (on 
liberation) there ts no purpose of ^tlie Spirit 
left to be served. Thus we have, by tho way. 
proved by reasonings also that Unconscious 
or Abstract Meditation destroys the ‘operative 
residua’ of actions. 

Thus the results of the two kinds of Medita- 
tion have been described. Now we proceed to 
describe the sub-divisuros of Ckinscicua or 

Farklndf f McdltctlOn CoTl* 

Conicloa* Mcdita. scious Meditation is of four 

tiOQ dcOoad. 

kinds — (1) Argu men ta ti vo 
(sauifarAfl), (2) Deliberative (sauicara), (3) 



FORM AFD AIM OF YOGA 


19 


Joyous {^anonda}, (4) Self conscious (sdsmita) 
The four names are merely leclinical, conven- 
tionally applied to the different forms of 
realisation, tho reason being that when tho 
inhibitions of iJie mental functions are 
accompanied and conditioned by the said 
'realisations’ along with tlieir results, they 
come to have the uaines ‘argumentative’ and 
the rest And because these four stages are 
m the form of the steps of an ascending stair- 
case, therefore the same kind of graduated 
ascent is attributed to the corresponding 
inhibitions also, as regards the inhibition 
itself there can be no sequence m it The 
sequonoo among tho ‘orgumontativo’ and the 
rest also as stated above i® tho normal one , 
the reason for this lying m the fact that the 
Mind cannot all at once enter into that i^hich 
constitutes tho highest subtle essence We 
read in the Smftis also that “in tho beginning 
of Meditation, one ought to contemplate the 
embodied God, then after this, the Bodiless 
One it IS only when tho Mind has boon 
controlled in regard to tho gross form that one 
should turn it gradually to the subtle . 
rurllier, so long as the Mind is engrossed in 



20 


Y0GA-8ARA-SANGKAHA 


(and extremely attached to) gross objects, it is 
not possible to fix it on the successive stages 
(of Meditation). Therefore the royal road (to 
perfect Meditation) lies in the gradual ascent 
to the successive stages, after one has realised 
the true nature of the grosser ways and has 
found them to be beset with defects (hence 
not deserving consideration). But in special 
cases it U possible for one to attain, at the 
very outset, the higher stages tliroupb the 
grace of God; and in such cases one should 

not revert to tho procticos relating to the 
lower stages, specially when there is no desire 
for the attainment of those earlier stages ; 
for the simple reason that tho Agent has 
already reached the higher stage, tho attain- 
ment whereof is the sole end of pa'^sing 
through the earlier stages. This has been thus 
declared by the revererf Autlior of the 
(Vyftsa on the yopo-Si/tras)— “ If one has, 
through Bivino grace, attained the higher 
stage, tlicro is no need for him to revert to the 
lower stage®, because tho ends of tho Inller 
will have been already served by other means.” 

. All Ihoso Four Stages (of Meditation) aro to 
bo [jmctiscci gradnaHy with nsfercnco to ooc 



FORM AND AIM OF YOGA 21 

• 

and the same object , or else the man will 
land himself m the calamity of relinquishing 
tho previous practice when advancing to the 
nest, and also to that of fickleness of Mind. 
For esample. The object (of Meditation) 
{Alambana) is that with reference to which the 
Agent first proceeds with contemplation,— 
be it either the Body of ihe Virat, or the 
four-armed body (of Visnu, etc) or ordinary 
objects, such as an earthen jar constituted 
severally and collectively of tho twenty-six 
(principles) When the agent practises, in 
reference to the gross form of such an object, 
concentration, contemplation and medilation 
and obtains thereby the direct 
perception of all tho peculiar 
features — i e , excellences and 
defects — of the said object in its 'gross’ form — 
oil tho features, present, past, and future 
as also those near or remoto, oven those 
unheard of and imtiiought of, — this constitutes 
tho ‘ Argumontatito’ (firat) stage (of Medita- 
tion) The toriTi ‘gross* hero stands for tlio 
olemcntal substances and alx) tho sen'^o-orpan** 
Tins * direct perception ’ is different in ohamclor 
from that of such objects os the Faur-armed 



22 YOGA SARA SAUGRAHA 

Vianu, by Dhruva ind others, brought 
about by means of penanoes and inc'vntations 
In the case of the latter, the Supreme Lord, 
pleased with the penance and Contemplation 
(of men like Dhrava), created a body for 
Himself and thereby presented Himself to 
their view and talked to them Vcgins on 
the other hand, by the force of their 
meditation, directly perceive the real body 
of the Lord as ho lies either m Vatl{ant^‘^ 
or the Sveta dvipa (different celestial regions) 
—though they themselves aio at a distance 
from Him In this latter case no conversation, 
etc , are possible though m this (latter) cose 
the peculiarity is that the Yogins can see 
through the different features— i e , oxcollence*' 
and defects— past present or future— of the 
Four armed Body (of the Lord) Thus has 
Argumentative fitaco been described 

Next comes the Deliberative stage [wdira) 
Ddtberatton le tiiat stage m 
^(2) Tb« Dciibari xv]jicb, With regard to the 
same object, the gross vision 
being renounced after the perception of the 
gross form (described above), the agent lias tlio 
direct perception of the various subtle forma of 



FORM AND AIM OF TOGA 23 

the ob]eot culminating in Primordial matter 
(Pralrit}, through all the particulars mentioned 
above, by means of the three*fold process of 
Concentration, Contemplation and Meditation 
with reference to the said subtle forms Here 
the word ‘subtle’ (Suftsjnn) indicates ‘cause’ 
(in general),' and as such stands for all such 
‘causal principles’ as the Primary Elements 
{TanmQiras}t Self-Consciousoess or Egoiam 
(4hamtcro), the Great Principle [iTahaUtattia), 
and Primordial Matter (Prakrit) 

Objection “ How can the ‘ Subtle ’ perception 
of a ‘ gross ' body bo true or valid ? " 

Reply Your objection has no force* 
Because all gross bodies of the form of 
the earthen jar and tho hke, being tho product 
of the twenty-six principles (headed by 
Primordial Matter), are really of the samo 
nature as those twenty-six principle®, for the 
simple reason tbnt Uiere is no difference 
between the (Constituent) cause and its pro- 
ducts, in fact even so the gross forms of tho 
products arc imponnonont and tho only reality 
that they have is in the form of their 
causes, — as declares the -S’ruti. "Tho jar and 
other things are merely verbal modifications 



24 YOGA-SABA-SANG?AHA 

in name, and the only reality is the 
clay (as the causo).” [ChUndogya-Vpa’ 
m$ad, VL] 

Objection : “ Even so how can there be any 
contemplation of the subtle form of things 
which is not perceptible ? ” 

This has no force, we reply. Because though 
ordinarily contemplation is possible only in 
ways already heard and thought of, yet even 
such things as have not been heard or thought 
of may become perceived by virtue of 
faculties due to meditation. Similary in all 
cases. Thus has Deliberation (Fjcarn) been 
described. 

Now we proceed to describe the Joyous 
, Stage {Ananda) : When with 

(3) Tm Jayoni , . . 

regard to the same objcci, 

after the perception of its subtle form, lhat 
(subtle) process of vision is abandoned, then 
there arises (as before) a peculiar perception 
in the form of happiness through concentration, 
contemplation and meditation upon the Spirit's 
desired end in the form of pleasure in regard 
to the t>\enty-four ‘principies’ (7’cf(ros)i — 
and this (perception) wcalled Joy (.^na«ff«); 
because wo accept the theory of the 



FORM ANP AIM OF YOGA 


25 


non-difference of oognition and the object of 
cognition Though Primordial Matter {Prakiti) 
being constituted equally of the three attri- 
butes (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas), pain and 
atupofaction should, like pleasure, be present 
everywhoTo — yet, since it is to attachment 
to pleasure alone that the cycle of Birth and 
Hebirth and the want of perception of the 
Spirit are due, therefore it la pleasure alone 
(out of the three) that has to be specially per- 
ceived and realised in all lU phases, by means 
of Meditation ( Yoga ) , so that when the agent 
finds out for himself the defects underlying 
all pleasure (a^ such), he comes to perceive 
that all pleasure is in reality only pain, and 
thereupon he attains diepassion with thi= 
end m view alone i* Meditation to be under- 
stood as restricted to Joy specifically In the 
Uvkzadharma section of the MahOhhlXTala, 
however, — stress being laid on the doctrine of 
identity between the quality and the object 
bearing that quality,— joy, too, like other quali 
ties has been included m the twenty-four prin- 
ciples, and hence Consciniu Meditation has 
been desenbed ae being of three kinds only • 
“To the, devotees having recourse to the first 



26 


YOGA-SASA-SAifGRAHA 


(Ck)naoiou3) form of Meditation— accrue succes- 
sively, Argumentation (F?/crAa), Deliberation 
{VicQra) and Right Discernment {Viveka)’’ 
That is to say, when the aspirant to Medita- 
tion proceeds to practise the Conscious Medita- 
tion, thoro come about, in due course, 
Argumentation, Deliberation and Egotisin. 
[Here the ‘Joyous’ stage has been omitted-] 
‘Right Discernment’ here mentioned is the 
same as Self-oonsciousncss (asmitH) that ws 
are going to describe. Thus has the ' Joyous 
been described. 

We nest proceed to describe Self-conscious* 

„ ness iasmita). Having, in the 

above manner duly passeo 
through tho abovo-raentioned stages, and 
having found the Gross, Subtle and Joyous 
perceptions ail full of defects, and being in the 
end disgusted with thorn, the agent finally 
attains in the same object the direct perception 
of Self or Spirit — this Self being discerned 
from the former experiences, through such 
characteristics as unchangeability, immanence 
and being of tho form of pure consciousness ; — 
and this (perception) is called ’Solf-conscious- 
ncss’ Iasmita); so-caJIcd braauso it appears in 



FORM AND AIM OF YOGA 


27 


the form ‘ I am (twnit) other than my body, 
etc.’ As there ie nothinR left to be cognised 
after the cognition of Self, Self-consoiou‘;ness 
has been regarded as the highest (last) stage. 
The highest stage of this perception (of self) 
13 called Dharma-megha-Sati^dbi. [Cf. Yoga- 
Sutras, IV, 28.1 A.t tho appearance of thisstago 
there arises (on the part of the agent) a feeling 
of ‘ enough ' with regard to all cognition or 
consciousness and then follows dispassion in 
its highest form, and this finally leads up to 
Unconscious or Abstract Meditation. Of Self- 
consciousness, there are two objects, viz., (1) the 
human Self in general, as discerned from 
the other twenty-four principles, and (2) the 
SuproraoSolf as discerned from this twenty-fifth 
principle (Self in general} ns also from tho 
twenty-four principles. With regard to those 
two objects also the usual order of senuenco of 
the various stages is equally applicable. The 
following passage from the Smrti bears testi- 
mony to the two-fold object of Self-con'^cious- 
ncss; “ Wlion tho principle, distinct from the 
twenty-four principles, known as tho twenty- 
fifth (tho human SolO is reduced by means of 
right discernment to Absolute unity. — it 



28 


TOGA-SARA-BANGRAHA 


perceives the twenty -sixth (the Supreina Self)- 
The same sequence is also borne out by the 
fact that the Supreme Self is far more subtle 
in Its nature than the human Self. The nature 
of the human Self is directly perceptible in 
Self -consciousness (osmt/s) ; because the psrccp' 
tion of Self consists only in the cognition, in all 
cognition, of the character of Self as undeCned 
(Absolute), unchangeable and the like; whilfr 
the perception of tbo Supreme Self 
possible at this stage. Tbe Meditation of the 
Human Self in general has been spoken of 
in the Fopn-5utra and the Yogo'Sh^lsyfi by 
the name Sattva^puriisSnyatH-khijati (discrimi- 
nation between the Self and the other prin- 
ciples— which are all constituted by the three 
Attributes, Saltva, Rajas and Thmus) ; while 
the Meditation of the Supreme Self has been 
spoken of in the Botra, *‘Or by devotion to 
God” [Yoga-Sfitra, I, 23] and the BhiJ-nja 
Ihorcon ; ns also in the Jiafsj/o and KUnna 
iVr/7r;c5; “A devotee is of tliroo kinds; (1) 
tho Bhanttka, (2) the Sahkhga, and (3) the 
Arityili/wmin who is devoted to the highest 
form of Meditation. In the firat there is 
('Onleinplatiou of tho principles (i e., of the 



KOHM AND AIM OF YOOA 29 

Eloinpnts) ; 5n tlm Slfikbyii (tbo second) Ihoro 
is contemplation of iho Imporishablo (Self); 
and Iho Inst has boon described as the final 
cnntomplntjon of iho Supremo l/jril." The 
word ‘Elements’ in tho above passape stands 
for nil non-intolliRcntorlnsftniienUhinps, The 
^nlytlsTrcHiiu is tho Perainnhamm {an ascetic 
of tho luRhcst order). The first contoniplntion 
la tho contemplation of Ibo Elements in tho 
first it c.t in the aspirant of tho first degree). 
In Scihkhya, i.c., in tho aspirant of tho second 
degreo there »a * Contemplation of tlio Im- 
perishable’ — (.(}., tho contemplation of tho 
unchnngoablo consciousness m penoral. In the 
third—: o , m tho cose of the ascotic of tho 
highest order, Ihero is tho fini:!— that which is to 
he performed in tho end — contomplation of the 
Supreme Lord, t£ , contomplation toiiclunK tho 
Supreme Self. For this reason, of all kinds of 
Conscious Meditation, tins last, the Meditation of 
the Supremo Lord is the highest. As is declared 
in the KurmapuraT}a “That is called High 
Meditation — touching the Supremo God-head — 
in which you perceive Me alone, the Self, pure 
and ever blissful. All other forms of Medi- 
tation mentioned in Uie large treatises on 



30 


YOGA-SARA^ANGRAHA 


the subject are not equal even to the six- 
teenth park of this Spiritual Meditation. That 
Meditation — in which the liberated ‘Souls 
directly perceive the Universal Lord — is said 
to bo tho highest of all.” 

Objection : ‘ How is Self-consciousness pos- 
sible in connection with non-sentient objects, 
such as the jar and the like ? ’ 

Reply : There is no force in this objection ; 
bscause as the cause (of the universe), the 
human aa well as the Supreme Self pervades 
through every object ; and os regards the hV- 
rated souls these are present everywhere by 
virtue of their immanence. [And as such 
Self-consciousness is quite possible with regard 
to the Self pervading the j'ar) 

The four divisions of Consoious (Concrete) 
Meditation have thus been described. Of 
these tho four t-tages — Arpimentativo, Poll' 

berative, Joyous and Self-conscious— consist 

(respectively) of the perception of tho gross 
objects, subtle objects, pleasure and human 
Self. To these four perceptions collectively is 
given the name of £ramapafl(alsa in this scionco. 

The qualifications, Argumentation and Deli" 
beration, accompanying tho Arguraentativo 



FOBM AND ADI OF YOOA 


31 


and Deliberative stages are each of two kinds. 
Argumentation is of two kinds Argument' 
ative and Non-argnmentative , and Delibera- 
tion also IS of two kinds Daliborative and 
Non-dehberative 

To explain this When tbe perception of 
the elemental substances and the sense-organs 
above mentioned, which has been spoken of 
a** ‘ argumentation ’ (Vttarkay^is accompanied 
by the ‘fanciful notion’ of word, object and 
tdea, then it is called the Argumentative 
Condition {Savikolpa-Samapatti) , and when 
there are no such notions it is called the Non- 
argumentative Condition (iitrvitarlia-Sama- 
patU) 

Question “ What do you mean by the 
Vikalpa^ (Notion) of the word, object and 
ideal" 

Deply There are tliree facloTs in tbe com- 
prehension of a Word, eg, Bart, (1) ' Han,’ 
the word , (2) Han, the object, the person , and 
(3) Han, the idea (m the nund) and when the 
Agent imagines these three to be one and the 
same wo have an instance of the VtKalpa (or 

For a definition of Vtkalpa llte reader is referred to- 
Yoga Satra, I. 9 



52 


yOGA-SABA-SANGEAHA 


fanciful notiion) of the toord, object and idea 
V7hich constitutes the first * fanciful notion , 
( ' mentioned above. When the gross 
perception of a thing is accompanied by this 
* Fanciful Notion ’ it is called the Argunien- 
tative or ‘ Fanciful * (Argumentation). And 
•when the gross perception is not- accompanied 

by the said ‘ Fanciful Notion* it is called Non- 
argiuuentative or ‘ non-fancifu! * (Argumen- 
tation). The doctrine of the Modern Logician, 
that ' Nirmkolpa ’ perception is the perception 
•of the Supreme Spirit devoid of qualifications, 
should be regarded as entirely baseless. 
The ‘ fanciful notion ’ hero spoken of should 
be taken as standing for ‘ Fancy ’ in general ; 
as the reasons stated above are equally apph* 
cable to all ‘ Fancy It is for this reason that 
the 'Argumentative' Condition is called 
Apara'prattjaksa (Non-bighor Inferior percep" 
tion),— because it is tinged with Illusion in the 
shape of Vikalpa (Fancy). The ■* Non-argu- 
mentative ' Condition on the other hand 
is called Para-pratyak^ (High or Superior 
Perception), because it is entirely free from 
all ‘ assumption ’ (or Illusion). Thus has llio 
tv\o-foldnDS3 of Argumeutation Ireen described. 



FORM AND ATM OF YOGA 


33 


Tho two-foldnoss of Daliberation is next 

'The tvf f Id described. When the subtile 

charsctei' of Dell- peTception of subtile things, 
bwaiion 

from Primary or Rudimentary 
Elements up to Primordial Matter — which 
has been called Deliberation (Ficam)— is 
accompanied by the apprehension of the 
emanations of each of the said subtile things— 
as also of Time, Space and the like—then it is 
called the Dehberauve Condition {.Saviodra- 
Samapatti ) ; and when it is without such 
apprehension, it is called the ffon'dehberatlve 
Condition {NirmcSra-Samapatti). Thus have« 
the different forms of Conscious Meditation 
been described. 

All these forms of Conscious or Concrete 
Meditation are called 3f€dttaiion ' with sub- 
stratum ’ {Sillambana Yoga), and also ‘ seeded ' 
Meditation (/Sablja-Poya), for the reasons that 
they are related to a substratum in the form 
of the object contemplated, and that they 
are productive of ^tendencies which serve 
as the ‘SeecT’ of future functions (of the 
Mind). 

For the Conscious Yogm there are four 
etages : viz., (1) The Prathama’Kalptka, (2) The 



34 


TOGA-SABA-SANGRAHA 


MadhubhUmika, (3) The PrajMjyotis, and (4) 
The Atikrii7itabhatxiraya. The first of these is 
one who^has the ‘argumentative condition, 
because, in that stage he has not given up all 
‘ Fanciful notion ’ of words, objects and ideas. 
The second {MatHiubhumika) is one who has 
the ‘non-argumentalive condition’ ; also called 
Eiambharaprajfia ? because in knowledge there 
is no posbihillty of any false imposition or 
Illusion, This stage is also called MadhumatU 
because it Is connected with such knowledge 
as gives satisfaction, just as honey does. 
’From this non-deliberative condition, there 
follows in due succession the third stage 

(Prajfiajyotis), which has conquered all subtle 

existences up to Primordial Matter {Prakrit)- 
It is at this stage that the Joyous Meditation 
(^ananda) comes in. Then follows the fourth 
{AtikrilntabMvanlT/a) which continues till tho 
completion of the ‘Self-conscious Meditation’ 
(Sa.'srfitfc). This stage has its final culmination 
in the Meditations named ‘Cloud of Virtue’ 
[Dharrtatvegha). Tliis ‘Cloud of Virtue 'has 
boen thus described: AlU desires for tlio 
altainniont of occult powers having been 
renounced, there imnicdintely follow's the 



FORM ANB AIM OF TOOA 35 

discernment of the Spirit from the Attributes; 
this leads to the cessation of all Illusion ana 
Tendencies ; whereat, there being^no further 
purpose left, there arises,— in the said Discern- 
ment which has an element of Pain, — the 
Higher Dispassion consisting in a sense 
of ‘ enough ’ ; and thereupon follows Un- 
conscious or Abstract Meditation ; and 
in ns much as the procc^ described above 
showers {Uehati) excellent virtue {Dharma) 
productive of such faciilUes as omniscience 
and the like— this process of Meditation 
is called the Showerer or * Cloud ’ [Uegha] 
of Virtue {Dharma). At" this stage the 
Yogin is called a Jlvanmukta (Liberated in 
Life), 

Question: "Is it then that ‘Liberation 
in Life’ and ‘ Final Liberation * are not possible 
without omniscience and tlie rest? " 

Answer : Certainly not ; it is not that they 
would not be possible ; because of what has 
been said in i\ie BbOsyn.' After having des- 
cribed all the occult powers up to Omniscience, 
tbo Bka^ya goes on — " To the Supremo 
I/ird (Ivvara), or to the non-divine personage 
(a Yogtn who ia equipped with wisdom arising 



3 6 YOG A-SAR A-SaS GB AH A 

from Steadiness, ole., as described in the Bhusp 
on Sutra, III, 53), or to him who has attained 
wisdom due to right discernment, or lastly to 
any Agent who has the * seed ’ of all the 
troubles of lifo destroyed,— there is no need 
for anything else for the attainment of wisdom- 
And the purity of Sattva (tha principal 
ingredient of Bttddld) bestrides tho wisdom as 
well as the ‘ dmnily ' bom of the said Medita 
tion. In fact Wisdom dispels non-perception 
(Ignorance) ; and on the suppression of Ignor- 
ance the ‘ troubles’ conseQuent thereupon also 
feease; and without ‘troubles’ there is n® 
fruition of the residua of actions. At thl® 
stage tho Attributes, having all their functions 
duly performed, do not again appear before 
tho vision of the Spirit ; and in this fact lies 
the Jfiolaiton [Kaivalya, Liberation) of the 
Spirit (from Matter).” [Ko{ 7 a-BAosyo, HI, S'"’-! 
In this passage, by the expression ‘ the wisdom 
due to right discernment ' is meant ‘ the per- 
fection of right discernment Omniscience is 
what has been described in the preceding 
SGlra ail, 54). ‘Purity of Sattva’ is the 
dispassion (absence of attachment) with regard 
to tho thin^ that have been enjoyed and 



FORM AND AIM OP YOGA 


37 


exporionced. Thus vfn soo that tho above 
iJassage also gives assent to the Sahkhya 
doctrine that even when the Meditation called 
‘ Cloud of Virtue’ culminating in Oraniscionce 
has not been accomplished, the two kinds of 
' liberation’ are brought about simply by means 
of the destruction of the ‘seeds’ of ‘ Birth and 
Rebirth’ in the shape of Vanity, Love, 
Hatred and the like. As for Unconscious or 
Abstract Meditation, on the other hand, it is 
of no use in that condition where all desires^ 
produced by tendencies having been destroyed, 
there quickly follows Liberation through th6^ 
utter exhaustion of the ' operative residua ’ 
(prSrabdha) and tliis liberation follows at tho 
mere wish of the Agent and not necessarily 
always at the said time. This has been 
already pointed out above. 

Thus has Cbnscious Meditation been describ- 
ed in detail. 

We next proceed to desenbn Unconscious or 
Abstract Meditation. This is of two kinds : The 
Artificial or ’Method-produced’ (l/pai/aprat- 
yai/a) and the Natural or * Birth-produced ' 
(Bhavapratpapa). TTib ‘ artificial ‘ Abstract 
Meditation is that in which tho Meditation is 



38 YOGA-BAKA'SAM'QRAHA 

brought about in this very world by niethodsor 
means prescribed in tho scriptures : the term 
‘ pratyaya ’ here signifies ‘ Cause Such rueaii® 
are (1) Faith {Sraddhu), <2) Power (Firt/fl). 
(3) Memory [Smrti), (4) Meditation (Sajnadkil 
and (5) Discernment (Prajiia) as declared in 
SQtra I. 20. Here Sraddba stands for Con- 
fidence in the powers of Yoga ; Vlrya, Power, 
for the Concentration of the mind ; Smrtu 
Memory, for Contemplation ; SamUdhii tb® 
final aspect of Toga; PrajM, Piscernme^ 
for the direct perception brought about by 
-Conscious Meditation. These five become the 
‘means' leading op to Abstract Meditation, 
through ‘ Perfect Oispassion,’ to be described 
later on. When these five are employed with 

great impetuousness and intensity, then there 
comes about Abstract Meditation, and also 
the final reward. Liberation Even when 
there is a certain amount of sluggishness (on 
the part of the Agent) in the employment of 
the above ‘moans.’ the said two results 
(Abstract Meditation and Liberation) may be 
attained by ‘Devotion to God ’ 

I, 231 ; bocouB© such devotion brings the Grace 
of God. 



FORM AOT) AIM OF TOGA 


39 


Question : “ Wbat is God and what is meant 
•Goddefired by ' devoUon ' to Hlffl ? ” 
Answer: Gad is that particular Spirit who 
is ever untouched by the five ‘ troubles,’ 
Ignorance and the rest, as also by ' good,’ 
‘ evil ’ and their products as well as by all 
‘ tendencies ‘ in general. This God has been 
described in all His aspects in the Vedanta- 
siltras beginning with— “Now /ollows the 
enquiry into Brahman [VedUnta-siitra,!, 1,1.] 
Consequently we touch upon the matter only 
briefly here. HU oinuipotence and onini«cieaca 
arc equalled op excelled by none, — Ho is the 
Spiritual Preceptor and Father of BrabmS., 
VisQu and Rudra and other deities in the 
capacity of the Inner Guide, — He is the 
imparter of Spiritual Vision (Juam-caksus) 
through the Vedas, His name is the 
Pranava (Om). And ‘devotion 'to Him 
consists in the contemplation of Him, 
through the PmnawH, culminating in the direct 
realisation of His presenoo. Thus the ‘ m&in ’ 
method of attaining Abstract Meditation as 
well as Liberation consists in Sawyama (Con- 
centration, Contemplation and Communion), 
relating to God , because such Sawiyamn 



40 


YOOA SA-RA-SANORAHA 


loids most nearly lo the final goal Sai)i' 
fjama with regard to the human Self on the 
other hand, constitute'^ the secondary 'method’ 
Such IS the final conclusion. Further, the 
doiotion to God puls an end to all impediments 
III tho form of sickness and the hko (mentioned 
in Yoga SHtra, I, 30) Thus too it is that the 
said devotion alone constitutes the mam or 
primary ' method ’ Tins has been thus 
declared in the SmTtis — “ Tor one desiring 
Liberation, ttio most comfortable patb 
liM m chngtng to Vtmn — which consists 
in contemplation by the Mind (of the God* 
head) , otherwise tho Agent is sure to be 
deceived " 

Thus has the ‘Artificial’ {X/payapratyaya] 
Abstract Meditation been described 

The ‘ natural,’ Bkavapratyaya (the second 
kind of Abstract Meditation) is next described 
In some cases, by virtue of the antenatal 
practice of the proscribed method ‘ Discern* 
ment’ and ‘ Dispassion como to the Agent 
and by mere wilhng he attains Abstract 
Meditation , this is the ‘ natural ’ Abstract 
Meditation , it comes about only in the 
case of the ‘ Bodiless Beings ’ {Vtdehas) and of 



FORM AKD AIM OF YOGA 41 

the ‘ Beings absorbed in Nature ’ {Prakxtilaya&) 
and of certain particular Deities This 
Meditation has boon called 'natural,’ 5Aoia- 
pTaUjaya, because it is brought about by the 
mere birth, Wtawt, of the Beings concerned 
(i e , /ho birth at tho proper time of the 
fruition of the practices of the previous birth) 
Aa examples of this we have the * Meditative 
Sleep ‘ (trance) of Btranyagarhha and the 
other Deities Of these the '‘Bodiless Beings 
{Viddiaft) are Htranyagarhha 
i.Iad™'*' 5“>'l tlKK® 0 *«r Deities who are 
capable of performing all their 
functions only through tboir subtle bodies 
and do not stand in need of the physical 
body Those who, worehipping Primordial 
Matter (Nature) or God interblended with 
Natjre pierce through tho 
Universal Egg (or shell) and 
pa*® over all the ‘sheaths’’ 
(^iiaranc) ending with the Great Principle 
[ilahat tattva) arrive at the final sheath 
in the shape of Nature {Prakrti), and 
attain to tho position of the Godhead — 
are said to be * Absorbed ’ in Nature 
{Prakrttlaya'i) 



42 


YOGA SABA-SANGRAHA 


Tlus ‘ N'vtural ’ form is not possible in the 
^ „ . easo of Conscious Mcdit'^tion , 

Diffcrencft d« 

tvfBcn ihetwoUndi becau'^o III tliis caso the 

of Medftntion— _ — „ 

CoBcr«te »Ba Ab Saiiiyama (Concentration Con* 
templation and Communion) 
forming the very essence of Conscious Meditfl 
tion, ns soon as it has been complotod, CJonsciou* 
Meditation must necessarily follow in tint 
very life It is for this reason that Conscious 
Meditation has not been divided into ' Artificial 
and ‘ Natural ' either in the Sufra or in the 

£h2sija 

Both these binds of Abstract Meditation 
are without any object of Contemplation and 
lienee Abstract Meditation is also called ‘ Sub- 
etratumlesa Meditation {HftTalambana'Hogci) 
And when this Toga is practised, all Tendencies 
^nd Impressions become consumed m due 
course , and on this account it is also called 
TTnseeded {Ntrblja) 

Though Abstract Meditation is of the nature 
■of 'Inliibition yet its practice constantly 
"brings about fresh and varying developments 
of Tendencies and Impressions and it is 
through these varying grades of Tendencies 
and Impressions that this Yoga takes fonts 



FORM AND ATM OF YOGA 


43 


accomplishment varying periods of time- 
such as a dnFt a fortnight, a month and so 
forth. As thcso Tendencies and Impressions 
develop, so docs it go on attenuating the 
impressions left by all functions right up to 
knowledge of TrutJi. Thus, in the final stage of 
Abstract Meditation, all residua (consisting of 
Tondenoics and Impressions) are completely 
destroyed; and then oven ‘operative residua 
{Prttrabdha) are rendered incapable of producing 
their results, having become deprived of the 
help of auxiliaries in the shape of the residual 
impressions leading up to the experiencing of 
results (pleasure and pain). Tliat previous 
* residual impressions leading up to experience 
aro the necessary auxiliaries to ‘knowledge 
and ' action ’ in bringing about such results 
as Birth and the liko is shown by such 
Sruti and Smrti texts as ‘Knowledge and 
action accrue to him, as also Previous 'Wisdoni, 
where the term ‘Provious 'Wisdom,' stands 
for the said ‘ residual impressions After this, 
the Mind, having all its functions duly per* 
formed, becomes completely absorbed into its 
Koot-Cause along with the ‘ operative r^idua ’ 
and the residua of Inhibition This is the 



44 yOGA'SARA-aANailAlIA 

* Profound sleep ’ of the Mind, which constitute® 
the Isolation {Kaivalyd^ of the Spirit, i e , It® 
absolute dissociation from all that is perceptible 
and which is of llie nature of Pain , the 
reason for this dissociation lying in the fact 
that it IS only through the Mind that the 
Spirit become® related to the Perceptible world 
fox the second tune As says the 
“ The flourishing of tho Mind ib Rum and the 
destruction of the Mind is the Greatest Good 
In the case where Liberation follows directly 
from knowledge of Truth, after the exhaustion of 
the * operative residua,’ ‘the residual impression 
of real knowledge al«o is destroyed alon? 
with the Mind this is all the difference 
(between this and the Liberation through 
Abstract Meditation) What «s to be borne 
in mind here is that both knowledge and Medi- 
tation as leading to Liberation having diffo?" 
ent processes of action, are in our system, 
independent of one another 
Gita also declares ‘The position attained 
by the Sankhyas is also got at by Yoga and 
he alone sees r^htly who sees tba same 
(things) in both [Bhagavad (Mta V 5] Hero 
Sankhya stands for percaplinii of right 



FORM m AIM OF YOGA 45 

discerninent (of Spint from Mature) and ‘ Yoga ’ 
for Inhibition of the Mind Thus in the case of 
Liberation through knowledge of Truth alone, 
all that Conscious Meditation is needed for is 
the process ending with direct perception of 
the (Supreme) Self^whtch sets aside all self' 
consciousness “and not such other 

■details as the destruction of the tendencies of 
■other functions , even when there is a conti' 
nuity of Conscious Mediation, when the 
* operative residua' is exhausted, the other 
^ Tendencies ’ are also destroyed, along with the 
Mmd, just like the ‘Tendencies’ left hy 
knowledge 

Thus ends Secim I of the Yogas&ra- 
eangraha of VijMfia Bhtksu—in which arc' 
descrtUd the form and aim of Yoga 



SECTION II 


THE MEANS OF YOGA 

The form of Meditation has bean described 
Now we investigate the means thereof 
Aspirants to Yoga are divided into three 
^ degrees the First, the Middle 

Meesi'of Mediia (second) and the Third, viz 
(1) Aruruksu, one attempt' 
mg to climb (to the stej® of Yoga), (2) 
TufijCna, one is engaged in the prac* 
tice, and (3) Vo^rUdh, one who has 
already reached high Yoga The Siitra 
and the BMspa have laid down three means 
for these three degrtfes of aspirants In 
accordance with the order adopted in the 
Sutra, the means for the first and the second 
will be explained later on , those for the highest 
degree are described here in accordance with 
the order of the aphonsms The Yogarfldhas 
(who have reached the Yogic stage) ere 



THE MEAHS OF YOGA 


47 


those who, having already gone through the 
external preliminary stages in their previous 
lives, at once rise to the stage of Meditation, 
without having to go again through the earlier 
stages. To this clasa of Yogins belong Jada- 
bharata and others. For the accomplishment 
of Yoga for such persons the principal means 
are Practice (AbhyUea) and Dispaseion (Fat- 
rflpya),--and not either the. active Yogic 
discipline or the external aspects of Yoga^ 
which will be described later on as means to 
Yoga, for the aspirants of the Srst and the 
second degrees r“as says the aphorism—*'* The 
inhibition of these (functions of the mind) is 
by Praoticeard Dispassion” 12); 

and the commentator, (VySaa), after having 
explained Practice and Di^passion, with all 
their accessories proceeds, to add the following 
words as introducing the aphorisms laying 
down the active Yogic disciplines and such 
other means The Yoga of the person 
with the collected Mind 1ms heoii desenbed ; 
now wo begin an exposition for tlio eako of 
tho accomplishnientof tho Yoga of those vlioso 
mind is in the waking (worldly active) stato 
(and has not yet been brought under proper 



48 


YOGA'SARA-aAjJOBAnA 


•control).” We read in the OarudapurUna also : 

For the ^ruritksu ascetics (those attempting 
to rise to Yoga) there have been laid down 
Action and Knowledge ; and for those who have 
reached the top of the tree of Yoga, Knowledge 
and Renunciation ’* and further, we find that 
the same course of action has been followed by 
Jadabharata and other aspirants of the same 
degree. By ‘.Renunciation ’ in the present 
context IS meant the ‘ renunciation of all such 
Action as la an irapedimont to the accomplish* 
meat of Yoga’; for ‘ Yoga ’ js the subject of 
the discourse. Says the Moksadharma section 
«f the Mahftbharala : “ By Action is a Being 
bound and by Knowledge released ; con* 
sequently foresjghfced ascetics avoid all 
Action " 5 also' ib© Anugita — " One who has 
passed beyond all disciplinary action and 
rests in Braliman alone and moves about iQ 
tho world as Brahman himself — is called a 
Brahmacdrin. Brahman w his ‘ sacrificial 
fuel, Brahman his ‘bacnficiar fire, Brahman 
hi3 ‘ Bacrificial ’ seat. Brahman his water 
And Brahman )iis preceptor; such a person 
is himself absorbed in Brahman." The 
QarudapurUna thus : “ Hard and fast rules as 



THE MEANS OP YOSA 


49 


to Boat and posture are oot helpful to Toga , 
in fact, all such rules, so extensively described, 
only tend to dolav the process, SisupAla 
attained Perfection through the force 
of Memory and Practice alone ' What la 
said to be desirable here is the renunciation of 
all oxtGrnal actions, as it is these that are 
impediments to Meditation,— -and not of 
internal actions Gike Contemplation and the 
rest), as internal ‘sacnfice’ lias been laid 
down by Manu and others, for even such 
aspirants as have no desires “ Bone persons 
versed in the Yoga-Scriptures, who ‘have 
no desire (for any rewards) constantly offer 
these Qrcat Sacrtjices into the sense organs 
themselves”— and also because such ‘ internal 
sacrifice, ’—not interfering with the necessary 
acts as begging for food, bathing and the 
like, — 13 not an impediiuent to Yoga and is 
also free from all desires for any rewards 
accruing from its perforinance 

'The Yogilrudha — as the highest aspirant to 
Yoga — has been thus described 
vj-it-den 'e”' Bhagavad-Glta [VI, 4] 

“ One IB said to be a Yogarudha 
when he is not attracted by objects of sense 



50 TOG-A*SlEAHSANGBAHA 

or by Actions, and when he has renounced all 
volition ” Ilie royal road for the Yogiiru^ha 
li^ in the practice of Meditation in the spirit 
of the Ronunciate Paramahamsa The Sruti 
thus declares *' The Wandering Mendicants 
take to that life of mendicancy with a 
view to attain the said state ' , SrkadH’ 
rariyakopanisad, IV, iv “ They live on 
alma given unasked, after having risen above 
all desire far children, for wealth, or for 
popularity , thorofor© ono is to perceive the 
Self in the Self itself, after having learnt this 
truth* and having become calm, self-controlled, 
dispassionate, forbearing and intent (with 
his mind fixed upon one Goal) ” 

' Practice ’ {Abhyasa) stands for ' the 
endeavour to fix the mind’, 
•''nd this fixing IS tbo final 
stage of Meditation and con- 
sists fn a continuous flow of unflinching con- 
centration Says the Sftagatnd^GUa {Il.SfJJ* 

‘ When thy Mind which has been tossed 
about by the JVeda shall liecomo stondy and 
fixed m Meditation, tiion v.itt thou attain 
Yoga” Prom the BJutgaiad-Cfil/l and other 
sources we loam that the endeavour for the 



THE MBAK5 OF TOGA 


51 


above*mentioned concentration consists in the 
bringing back of the Mind to the object of 
Meditation, -whenever it happens to stray 
away from it , as is declared in the Bhagavad- 
Gita [VI, 26 ]— “Whenever the fickle and 
mobile Mmd moves away, it is to be restrained 
and chained to tho Self” 

‘Dispassion’ {VatrSgtja) consists in the 
feeling of ‘enough’ {with reference to 
objects of enjoyment) , it is not the raoro 
negation of passion or attachment , for in 
that sense the epithet ‘dispassioned’ would 
apply also to one who Las no paseion or 
desire for an object which is not there (to 
attract him) 

This Dispaesion is of two kinds Superior 
{Pura) and inferior (Apara) 

The ‘ inferior ’ kind of Dispassion consists in 
the absence of desire for earthly or celestial 
things, by reason of their being beset -with 
innumerable defects in the shape of trouble and 
pain attending upon the corning, guarding and 
losing (the objects), the injury inflicted (upon 
other Beings) and bo forth This inferior kind 
of Dispassion is itself of lour kinds (1) Fcffl- 
TnCna'SoFyjia ‘ manifestation of Attempt,’ 



52 


YOGA-SARA-SANGEAHA 


(2) Vyaiireka-Sanjfla, ‘ manifestation of differ- 
entiation,’ (3} Eketfdriga-sarijftO, ‘ manifastation 
of one sense,’ (4) VasHkara-safijfia, ‘mani- 
festation of conquest’. The first is the name 
given to the practice of looking at the defects 
(in the objects of enjoyment) which leads to 
Dispassion, and constitutes its first stage. 

‘ These senses have been subjugated, and tliese 
others are yet to be subjugated ’—this dis- 
crimination constitutes the Second, the ‘ differ- 
entiation ’ stage. After nil attachment to the 
external objects of sense, such as colour and 
the rest, has been destroyed, one comes to 
submerge in the single sense-organ of the 
Mind of all desire for honour and aversion to 
dishonour and such other sentiments { and this 
is what constitutes the third kind of Inferior 
Dispasfiinn. When in the presence of all the 
objects (of sense-gratification) as well as of 
Honour, Dishonour and the like, tho sense-organs 
and Mmd remain unmored — it constitutes the 
Fourth kind of Inferior Dispassion. The term 
' SanjM ' in all the four name.s stands for 
‘manifestation’ {^hivyakti), which implies 
‘clcatnosa’ nr • explicitness From among 
Lhesft tbur kinds of Dispassion, the fast 



THE MEANS OF TOGA v 53 

{Vaglkara-SavjM) alone is to be practised by 
the Yognrudha (see above) ; because the first 
three will have been already accomplished in 
the Yufij(ina state. (See above.) 

The inferior kind of Ettspassion has been 
described. 

We now describe the superior kind of 
Dispassion. This kind of Dispassion consists 
in the sense of ‘ enough’ due to the previous 
discovery of defecls-^even without any fresh 
discovery of such defects, — the said sense of 
‘ enough ’ having been brought about by the 
recognition of the fact that those things are 
not the Sei/,— such recognition resulting from 
the direct diaceroment of difference between 
Self and Not^lf.-and also by the com- 
plete cessation of Ignorance, as the result of 
Knowledge of Truth. The * Superiority of 
this kind of dispassion lies in the fact that 
Liberation follows after this as a matter of 
course. 

Practice and Dispassion have thus been 
described. Of these two, Dispassion tends to 
blunt the functioning (of the Mind) with 
regard to the objects (of fionsegratifleation) ; 
and Practice bearing on the object of 



54 YOGA-SABA-SAilGRAHA 

Meditation tends to strengthen the flow of the 
function (of the Mind) with regard to that 
particular objeot. Thua we see that the 
inhibition of the mental functions depends upon 
both Dispassion and Practice 

We are now going to describe tbe means 
essential In Practice 

Km, d Alt. Embellishments 

yaia. The Pbci- 

karmam Mem* {i^nArorwan) and the like. J-O® 

bellubineats * , 11, 

word Partkarman, eraoeiiisn 
ment,' stands for that purification of the Mind 
which brings about its concentration : “ 
karman is purification of the body.” [Amara’ 
ko^a, 11, vl, 121] and again Parikarman 
is embellishment". {Amarako&a, II, vi, 99] 
Such IS the teaching of the Lexicons (1) One 
such embellishment is Peace of 
^(1) F<ac« el • Peace ’ standing 

for tho ohsanee of all foulnc^ 
or distraction due to (connection with) objects 
(of sense). The causes leading up to Peace of 
Mind are: (1) friendliness towards happ/ 
circumstances; (2) Sympathy for the unhappy* 
(3) Joy at the sight of tho virtuous ; (4) Feeling 
of indifference (tolerant disregard) towards the 
sinful— and eucb other meansof tho subjugation 



THE MEANS OP YOSA 


55 


of Love and Hate. Says the Ehagatad-Gltn 
[II, 64, 651: “The self-rratrained man who 
moves among objects with senses under the 
control of his own self, and free from love and 
hate, obtains tranquillity; when there is tran- 
quillity there is an end of all misery, as the 
iimd of one of tranquil heart soon becomes 
Steady.” Regulation of Breath {PrdqUyUma) 
U the second means of bringing about Peace 
of Mind. 

Another Embellishment [Perikarman) is 
‘ Objective Operation The 
‘ebject’ meant here is odour 
and the other Rudimentary 
Substances (ranmatros) ; the direct perception 
of these by means of a slight practice of 
Meditation, is called ‘Objective Activity’. 
The perception of super-physical sraell, brought 
about in a very short trnio by concentrating 
the Mind on iho lip of the nose, is the ‘odour- 
operation’ {Oandha-pravrtU). Similarly there 
is perception of (siipor-phj'sical^ taste at the 
tip of the tongue, of colour at the palate, 
(retina?), of touch at tbo eentro of the tongue 
and of sound at the root of the longue. AH 
this is to bo learnl from Uio Scriptures, AH 



56 yOGA-SABA-SANGBAHA 

tnese various ‘ operations ’ are productive o| 
faith and confidence in the various stages o 
Meditation oulminatuig in Right Discern- 
luent , and through ibw Faith and Confidence 
they lead to the steadiness (or Peace) o 
the Mind When ono Scriptural (scientific) 
subject has boon directly perceived through 
the force of steadmess, it is only right and 
proper that the Mind should become tramiin 
towards all BCientilio subjects through eubanoed 
confidence and force of steadiness 

The third EmWllisbment iPankarman] is 
the 'Joyous Bright (Fts’oftfl 
BrS?i ^ ' Jmstnati) FtMa. ‘ Joyous, 

IS that from which (yosmSf) 
sadness (s'ofcaft^) has disappeared {mgaiak) , and 
because the operation named ‘ Bright’ {JyatiS 
mail) is'jojous flit without sadness) there 
fore it leads to the Peace of Mmd This 
‘ Bright operation — is of two kinds (1) The 
perception of the Thinking Principle {Buddhth 
and (2) The perception of the Spirit (as) d^ 
cernod (from Nature and its emanations) The 
‘brightness’ of these two operations is based 
on the fact of their having (and hence giving) 
much light [tB, because they enlighten us 



THE OF TOGA 


57 


more than any other perception]. Objection: 
'‘After the perception of the Spirit (which is 
the suni/jiun hflnwm), what could be the need 
for the Peace of Mind? Ignorance having been 
removed (by the perception of the Spirit), there 
is nothing left to be done (for the good of the 
Agent).” Ansioer : liven after the perception 
of the Spirit, the Agent desiring Abstract 
Meditation, which puts an end to all karmic 
residua, retjuires the Superior kind of Dispas* 
aion ; and for the accomplishment of this latter, 
he stands in need of a scries of Conscious 
Meditations; further, one aiming at the per- 
ception of llie Supreme Self elands in need 
of Meditation bearing on that Self, even 
after he has had a full perception of the 
human Self. 

The fourth Embellishment (Parikarmn) is the 
Contemplation on the Mind of 
,d'’L.Sra':i Dispassioncd Bemgs. When 
tho nspirant is fixed 
upon the miude of suoli persennges ns Narndn 
and olbei-s, then it niso becomes, like them, dis- 
passioned and ln.non.1: jost as the thinking 
of passionate persons Inclines tho mind to 
passion. 



58 


YOGA-SARA-aANGR^lHA 


The fifth ©mbollishraent {Parikarman)is(^^~ 
(5) ContempU. templatioD of the Cognition 
either of or deep 

deep.Uep. Aspirant 

thinks of his waking cognitions as those 
of a dream — on the ground of both being 
equally concealers of the real form (of self) and 
also of equally having impermanent things 
for their objects,— then his Mind gains 
its true character and becomes dispassioned 
and (hence) tranquil. It is for this reason 
that all worldly phenomenon (iVapafioo) has 
been compared to a dream in all Srutis and 
Smytis— by such passages as “Know this 
(world) to be a prolonged dream Similarly 
when the Aspirant looks upon waking persons 
as on those in deep sleep— because both of 
them equally have (the true character of the 
Spirit) hidden from them, and because the 
waking person has only interrupted glimpses 
of tbs world, jnst as on© in deep sleep has 
dreams at intervals, through defect in sleep,-" 
then his Mind loses all interest in these 
operations and hence becomes tranquil. Says 
the Smrti — “ As a person in deep sleep per* 
ceives the whole universe in himself, and on 



THE MEANS OF YO&A 


5 ^ 


tlie apprehension of dreams finds himself 
occupying only a potlion thoreoft similarly , 
having come to conceive of the various 
states of life— the waking, etc.,— as mere 
illusion, one ought to contemplate on the 
Supreme Spectator of all this (phenomenal 
existence).’’ 

The sixth Embellishment [Pankarmaii) 
is the Contmplaiion of the 
Adored One,— the contEmpla- 
tion of the forms of Siva 
and Visnu and other such Beings as may 
be adored by the Aspirant In this case 
tlie Mind becomes fixed upon the Adored 
forms through right attachment to it and 
thereby acquires-^the capacity to be fixed upon 
other things also nght up to Bight DiBcernmeiit. 
Thus have the Btnbelliahments been described. 

Among these those consisting 
pirant with refer- in contemplation are to be 
piau“noViwo e": employed at the option of the 
beUisbmeQt. Aspinmt. (There is no hard and 

fast rule as to which is to be employed first ) 
Thus have been described Exercise and 
Dispassion, as being the means common to 
both kinds of Meditation— Concrete as well as 



€0 


YOG A-SABA-SANGEAHA 


Abstract. The means to Practice in the shape 
of EmhelHshments,— have also been described. 
In this (t.e., among the means common to 
both kinds of Meditation) 
l.S'.r”.™ e" fa a further suh-divkion : 

..a D,.p.,. m Practice over the iwenty- 

Sion to the two ' ' ^ / 

kinds af Meditft gj^ principles consisting oi 

the ‘ Cognisor; the ‘ Copn’tion; 

and the 'Cognised,' (2) the inferior kindo 
Diapassion, called Faffifoira (see above), aro * 
means to Concrete Meditation. Of these. 
Dispasaion is the direct cause of the ‘ inbib* 
tion ’ of the functions, whereas Practice is so 
only through one of the factors, itt., com 
irunion (Sumadht). As regards Abstract Medi- 
tation, on the other hand, t^e superior kind of 

Dispassion {see above) is its' direct cause ! the 
perfection of knowledge of the form of Dis 
passion alone leads to Abstract Meditation 
through the accomplishment of the Dispassion 
itself. It has been already explained that tho 
superior kind of Dispussioiii in its accomplish^ 
cd form,* consists of the sense of ‘ enough 
with reference to the Knowledge of Eight 
Discernment also, which N of tho nature of 
pain. Practice based on a concroto object is 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 


61 


a moans to Abstract Meditation only through 
Right Discernment, not directly. 

Thug far we have described the means to 
Meditation for the Aspirant of the first 
(Highest) Degree. 

Next we describe the means to Meditation 
fitted to the aspirant of the 
mcam of Mcdila. second (middle) degree, such 
pi*ae^e^** ^8 the Ascetic and the hke, — 

such means consisting in a 
high form of ‘ Yoga-Discipline 

The most important of these is the Yoga* 
T^iseipline iisalf. Practice and Dispossion and 
the rest are to bo employed only so far as 
one may bo ab!o to do it. The highest form 
of Yoga-Discipljne consists in Austerity 
(Tapae), Study (^vadkyaya), and Devotion to 
God (Is'vara-prantd/ttlm). Of these Austerity 
consists in tbo habituating of one’s body to 
the pairs of opposites like heat and cold, 
through penances prescribed in the S'aatras ; — 
Study consists in tbo reading of treatises 
treating of Liberation and in the repetition 
(Japa) of the Pranata (Om) , Devotion to God 
consists either in the smrendering of all one’s 
important activities to the Highest Master, or 



€2 


toga-saba-sangraha 


in renouncing the reward of one's actions, — so 
says the author of the Bhusya (Vyasa) 
The meaning of ‘ surrendering ’ (one’s actions 
to God) has been erplamed m the Smrtis 
in each passages as the following — “ What a 
Iran does, either knowingly or unknowingly. 
IS done by God through His Yoga-ifayni''-^' 
Illusion which He is able to manipulate by 
means of bis Meditation), consequetitly. the 
•firm belief that ‘ I am not the doer, all this 
18 done by Brahman’ iscalled ‘Surrendering 
to Brahman ’ {Brahmdrpana), by the sages 

acquainted with Truth ” The'eurrrendenng’of 
the rewards of Actions also consists in thinking 
that ‘ God IS the real enjoyer of the rewards 
of (my) actions ’ The presumption that God 
also has his experiences is gathered from such 
Texts as “ Drinking of Truth, oto ” , tbe text 
to the contrary that “Another (God) shines 
■bnght without eating ” [Bj-hadaranyako- 
pantsad. III] precludes from God only such 
direct experience as is preceded by Egoism 
The ‘ experiencing by God of the rewards of 
actions’ consists m Hia tming pleased when 
he makes the human selves undergo the 
experience of the rewarifa of thoir various 



TUB MBASb OF yOC?A 


f.1 

nciion'?,— (VS when one oITow Rtfi» to 
bf-pp-ir^, he N h-hA to bo the * (njojer ’ of the 
wenUh thu'- Riven ,—nnd c«rLnnl> tlie cx- 
poncnco-v bj God c*vnnoi con*-i«i of the direct 
oxponencM of the pleiniiro of hevven or the 
piin*! of hell, an> fluch idc« woiilil bo 
repuRnant to nil Smti nnd 5»/ir/» text** T|inuf,!i 
Goda ‘experience of overlistinR bUsi’ !• 
ctomnl, 5 cl tho fad of tlio manifestation of 
this pleasure on the award of plcisuro to 
hunnn boixiRs lead«i to Ihc mctilion of sudi 
ploisuTo follow fnK Hts Omnipotence bcinj? 
prot/umi,— which however isonl> a liRurativo 
waj of bajinR thincs — just as wo speak of 
His dcsiro to create (though, os a matter of 
fact, all His desires are eternal) 

Tho discipline (described above) bears that 
name {Yoga) only in its secondary figurative 
application, on account of its being tlio moans 
to the accomplishment of Yoga in tho same 
■way as tho same nomo is given to Devotion 
nnd Knowledge 

Like Meditation also tho Yoga Discipline 
leads to tho attenuation of disorders as is 
described in the aphonsm It (Yoga Disci* 
plme) serves the purpose of accomplishing 



64 YOGA-SARA-SANGTtAHA 

Samdhi and also of attenuating the disorders ^ 
irotja-Sidra, II, 2 1 Here the terai ' Samadhi 
stands for both kindb of Yoga, on the groun 
of their being no difference between the whole 
and its part. The two lands of Yoga have 
been already described. 

Nest we proceed to describe the ' Attenuation 
of the Disorders * and their effects These 
' disorders ’ are five m number these being 
called ‘disorders' because they are sources 
pam and suffering The fivo ‘Disorders 
are (1) Ignorance [Avtdga), (2) 

{Aamita], (3) Love (Baga). (4) Hate {Die&a), 
and (S) Yearning for Life (Abhtmvoffci) 

Sutra, II, 31 Ignorance consists m cognis- 
ing the non-eternal as the eternal, the impuro 

as pure, pain as pleasure and non self as Se 

Solf-conscioubness consists m the mistahon 
notion of the identity of Self and Kon self, by 
themselves as well as through their properties 
(The difference of S^ism from Ignorance lies 
in the fact that) the latter leaves room for both 
difference and non-difference between Self an 

Non self (and does not involve identification) 

Love and Hate are too well-known (Co requira 
a definition here) yaarnttiff /or Li/c consists 



THE •MEAUB OF YOGA 


65 


in the fear of death, etc. Among those five, 
each preceding one is the cause of each succeed- 
ing one. Thus Ignorance being the root cause 
of all troubles has been called the ‘field’ 
{Kselra ) ; because it ia only when Ignorance 
is thcro that the appearance of the others 
is possible ; all the rest are destroyed when 
Ignorance U destroyed. 

All these Disorders ruffle the mind, like 
bodily disease, and hence are impediments 
to Meditation also. The ‘ attenuating ’ of these 
lies in their being rendered incapable of 
obstructing Bight Discernment (of Spirit from 
ITon-Spirit). And this is the effect of Yoga- 
Discipline through ‘ seen’ as well as ‘ unseen ’ 
forces. Yoga-Discipline serves to purify the 
mind 5 and this purification leading to the 
attenuating of Adhanna, this ‘attenuating 
leads to the ‘attenuating’ of Ignorance 
and the rest which are the effects of 
the said Adharma. Further, Yoga-Discipline 
is not possible while Pride, Love and 
Hate are strong: or even if it could be 
somehow brought about, it would only be 
in an incomplete form. Consequently for its 
own accomplishment, Yoga-Discipline has to 



66 yoga-saba-sanoraha 


brinfi about * attenuation of disorders . Thus 
Yogfi also is to 1)0 ondorstood to bo the effect 
ot Yoga-Disoii>line through ‘ scon ’ as “ 
‘ imseon ' forces,— tho purification of the nim 
being tho ‘ unseen Force ’ and tho restraining 
of the mind by means of notions, tho seen 


force ■** 

We now proceed to describe briefly ® 
effecU of the ' ottenualion o 

• iUe*vUt?in*« disorders’— culminating in flns,! 

of ‘ho Liberation— as explai*^®'^ 
sbovo Duoraef*. Tun.^n tH0 

the Yoga-SCilras. Wlien toe 
‘attenuation of disorders’ has been brought 
by means of Yoga*Discipline the flow of Big 
Discernment ceases to be impeded in its cou^ 
by the Disorders and as such leads to t ® 
direct perception (of the object of discernment. 
viz.. Supreme’ Spirit). And tlien Ignorance 
and the other Disorders, having their seeds 
almost entirely burnt by the fire of the 


ception of Diecernment — called Prasaf^khyH^' 
— are no more able to sprout up (into impurity 
of the mind and the other impediments to 
Meditation). This is the state of the ‘ Person 
liberated during life’. After this when afl 
the rest of the ' opeiativo residua ’ has been 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 67 

exhausted, and the Mind haa becorno absorbed 
(into the Spirit),— even, those disorders that 
had almost been entirely burnt and had lain 
latent in their subtle forms now completely 
melt away. "When all these Disorders have 
been extirpated, there is nothinR to lead to the 
rebirth of the Spirit, which thereupon experi- 
ences no more pain—this is the state of Final 
Absolute liberation 

Objection: “The right view to take is that 
Knowledge destroys tho latent Disorders also ; 
why should you assume (an intervening process 
of) burning which is held to incapacitate the 
Disorders for further action’” 

Reply As a matter of fact, the potency 
of the cauBC consists in the latency of the effect : 
and without this latter, the cause has no 
existence , it is found in tho case of Fire 
and such, other things, that the capacity to 
burn persists only so long as the substance 
(Fire) IS there From tiiisit follows that what 
Knowledge and the rest bring about is the 
burning of the productivity of only such 
‘ Disorder,’ ‘ Actions,’ and ‘ Tendencies ' as 
are still latent— nol of those that are past 
(and have already produced their effects) , 



68 YOBA-SABA-EANOEAHA 

tho destruction of these latter follows from the 
destruction of the Mind itself , for the simpl® 
reason that the Property becomes dcstroyeo 
by the destruction of the object to whic 
property belonRS 

We now proceed to describe the process 
which Bondage follows from Ignorance a 
the other ‘ Bisorders,’ and how the cessation 

of these brings about Laberalion Asa ma r 

of fact, Dhama and Adharma result from 
Ignorance and the other Disorders , as declare 
an the following Smrtt text If ” 

notion of ‘I’ and has his Buddbi un 
tainted, even though he may kill oH 
people, he himself is neither killed, 
bound” {BUgavad-Gita, XYIII, 17 J Froio 
Dharma and Adharma proceed all fruition (o 
actions and their residua) in the form o 
birth, life and exjwnences , those latter gi’^® 
rise to pleasure and pain , from winch follo'^ 
the ‘ bondage ’ of the Spirit, con'’isting m t e 
experience of these (pleasure and pain) Tb 
‘ experience ’ mentioned above among the fruits 
of actions, consists in the mind function 

assuming the form of sound and other objec 

of experience, — and in this lies the difference 



THE ME^S OF YOGA 


(of this kind of ‘eTperienco’ from that con- 
stituting the ‘ bondage ’ of the Spirit). 

Obiootion: “The Disorders [Ignorance, etc.) 
constitute the cause of disagreeable pain, as 
■woll as, through Dharmu, of agreeable pleasure 
in the shape of attainment of heaven and 
the like ; why then should these Disorders be 

rooted out ?” 

Reply ; The ‘ pleasures of heaven ’ also are 
to be considered os ‘pam’by the wise, be- 
cause they abound in pain and are conducive 
to further pain: as declared by the S4nkhyn- 
SQtras " Just as there w aversion for pam, so 

also there is no similar longing for pleasure. 
{Samya-Sutra, VI. 6) , (because) “ nowhere 
is anybody pleased ” {Ibid , VI, 7) ; (since) that 
(pleasure) also abounds m pain, (therefore) wi&o 
persons include that also m pain.’ {Ibtd., VI, 8.) 
This process of bondage through Ignorance is 
thus described m the Kurmpuravo i “All 
such evils as-Love, Hate, and tbo hko have 
thoir fcourco in Ignorance; from this also 
follows tho ovil m the form of Virtue 
and Vicc-saye iho ffruf. ; and the birth 
of tho body of all beings is duo to tins 
latter." 



70 


YOGA.SABA'SaSGRAHA 


The process < 

has been described. , 

Now we proceed to explain the process o 
Lnjeration through the s“P' 
u£'.urd.;: pression of the Diserdeis. 
.apprnoaa irmofftnce having been roote 

tfoubl**. 

out by the direct perception 
of tho discrimination between the Self and th 
Non-Self, the other Disorders which are a 
based upon Ignorance also become destroy 
And thus the cause having ceased to cxis . 
the effects in tho shape of DAanmo ao 
Adharma cease lo be produced i the 

residua whose fruition has not yet commence 

cease to bring about their effects, on accoun 
of the extirpation of their auxiliaries m 
the shape of th© Disorders ; the tenrruc 
residua whose fraition has already commence 
arc destroyed by th© experienr.ing (*-®" 
only when their effects havo^ been experi" 
enced by the Agent)^ — and* finallyi the 
‘ operative residua * having thus become 
exhausted, the Body dies and there is nO' 
thing left which could load to Rebirth , 
it is this ‘ extirpation’ of ‘ pain ’ that m 
Liberation. 



THE MEANS OF 'SOGA 


71 


Ju^t as the namo Medical Science is given to 
its four constituent parts, Disease, Diagnosis, 
Cure end Medication, so SanUiya Yoga otc , 
(called tbo Soionce of Liberation) treat of (1) 

‘ what IS to bo extirpated,' (3) the ‘ source of 
what IS to bo extirpated,' (5) the process of 
extirpation, and {4) the means of oKtirpation 
Hero ‘ what is to ho extirpated' is Pam , the 
source of what is to be ©xtirputed is Ignorance , 
‘extirpation’ is the absolute removal of 
pain , and the means thereof is the direct 
perception of Discnmiinlive Wisdom The 
qualifying term ‘group’ has to bo added to 
each of these m order to include all accessories 

Objection “The Spirit in its very nature 
being always without pain how can tho 
extirpation of pain be said to be Its 
aim ’ 

Reply This objection has no force because 
the Sankhya and other phibsophies declare 
the * extirpation of pain ' to be the aim of the 
Spirit on tlie ground of the relation of owner- 
ship (hence of attachment) that the Spirit 
bears to the objecte of experience Tliough 
experience being of the nature of perception 
(and hence residing m tho Spirit which is 



72 


YOGA-SARA.-SANGHAHA 


evorlnsting) is, by itself, otemal, yet like the 
apace m thq jar, (which partakes of the 
cliaractor of its container, the jar, though by 
itself Space is eternal), the experience 
18 iniperrnancnt (since pain is so) , 
such it 13 but proper that its extirpation shoul 
be the aim of thefSpint , because the experieuc 
mg of pain is nothing more than the form c 
Consciousness as characterised by the reflect'®” 
'of pam 

In tins connection, the Sutra and t 9 
ShSsya have described ‘Birth' consisting 
in the connection of the cogmstng Spirit wit 
the cognised object, as the reason for 
ance being the source of ‘ what is to be extir 
pated,'— and have described m detail the 
character of the Spint il^urasa) ssthocogntsor 
and Primordial Matter (PraATft) as the cognised 
We have also done the same both m the 
Yoga’VUrttika and m tbo Bhasya on the 
Sankhya Sutras In our Sankhya-treatise, 
the SSnkhyasarOf we have discussed at length 
the character of Spirit as well as of Primor* 
dfal Matter , ronaequently we desist from 
treating of the same subject here, for fear 
of being unnecessarily prolix 



THE MMS OF Y0C5A 


73 


Tims ends the exposition of the Means to 
Meditation for tiio Aspirants fii the Middle 
Degree ; and in conncotion therewith we have 
also had an explanation of the fact of Yoga- 
Discipline being the means of Liberation, 
through the ‘ attmnatmg ‘ of the Disorders. 

We now proceed to describe th^'means of 
Meditation for.those aspirants 
of the Lower (Third) order 
innStT”'* that belong to the class of 

Householder and •>tbe like. 
And in as much as such means are also the 
means of knowledge as described above, the 
Sfiira and the Bhtisxja have described them in 
the same manner as the means to Bight 
Discernment. These are: (DEestrainls (7oma), 
(2) Obligation (Myoma), (3) Posture [Asana), 
(4) Regulation of Brea^ (Praimyama), (5) 
Abstraction {PraiyahQra), (6) Concentration 
(D/jarana), (7) Contemplation {DhyQna), and 
(8) Meditation (Satnadht). (Voga-Siltra, II, Z9J) 

• These aro the eight ‘limbs’ of Yoga. The 
Aspirant if the Lowest D^reo should have^o- 
courso to tho practice of Concentration, Contem- 
plation and Meditation, as also to tho entire 
Yogn-Disciphwe TOosisUng of Rc^ilraints, 



74 yoga-sara-bangraha 

Obligations, Posture, Breath-Eegulat'f’^ 
Abstraction, in the order that they 
mentioned above, and ^ith this ond in view, 
all of them have been preocnbed collectively 
as Buitad to the Aspirant of the Lowest Degree 
Of these the j practice o' 
Restraint and Obligation. 

J-tlSlnS'"' Poatarc.BroaUi-RoBnlaf”” 
and Abstraction only 
called ‘ Karma*yoga ’ (Disciplinary Yoga) 
aspirants of tho Highest and Middle degrees, 
on the other hand, what have been ah 
ready prescribed before are * Pure Knowledge 

and ‘ Discipline along with Knowledge’ 

this view — that recourse may be had to 
Knowledge and Action (Discipline) either 
severally or collectively — the authority 'S 
supplied by the following passage from the 
Visnu-Purana “Sanaka, Sanandana and the 
rest are endowed with the contemplation of 
Brahman, others, tho ‘Deities and other 
movable and immovable beings, aro endowed 
with the contemplation of Action alone , and 
Oastly) Hiran^agarbka and the rest are 
endowed with that of both Action and 
Brahman ' . 



THE MBAHS OF TOGA 


75 


Restraints and Obligations have been 
explained in detail in the Sutra and the 
BJiUsya. We reproduce here the explanation 
given in the I^vaTa-GltH ; [A) “ Harmlessness, 
Truthfulnesa, Non-theft, Continence and Non* 
Covetousness^ briefly constitute Restraint and 
bring about the purification of men's minds. 
Tho Great Sages describe ' Harmlessness ’ as 
consisting in not giving pam— either by act, 
thought, or speech— to any living being at any 
timo. There is no virtue higher than Harm* 
lessnesa ; no happiness liigher than Harmless- 
ness. But injury or harm inflicted in file way 
prescribed in tho Scnpturcs has been described 
as ' Ilarmiossness’ (not involving any ein). 
One can attain everything by means of Truth ; 
and everything subsists in Truth and tho 
Brihmanas have defined Truth as ' speaking 
and acting in strict accordance with facts . 
Forcible as well asstoalthy carrj-ine away of 

others’ property isThoft. — tho abstinence from 
which IS Non-theft, which leads toN/inrma- 
Continence b said to be tho abstinence frpm 
sexual intorcourso — oillier by act, thought or 
apocch— with all living beings and at nil times. 
Tho spontaneous non-occoptanco of ‘gifts 



7G YOQA-SABA-SANOBAHA 

{from others] oven in times of calamity is 
called Non-covetousness and this should be 
observed with all due care. (S) The Obliguticms 
briefly arc these: Peoanco, Study, Content 
ment, Cleanliness and the Adaratinn of Go > 
these bring about the accomplishment of Medi 
tation. Highest Penance is said to consist in 
mortifying one’s body by moans of fasting nn 
such pouanccs as the Parana, the 
and tho like. The learned have defined Stu 7 
as purifying the mind and consisting in the le 
petition of the Vedftnta Texts, the S'dicnafriys 
(the 16th chapter of the rojtirvcda, beginning 
with Namasterudra 7nanyave), and the 
• (Om). There are three kinds of Study*”! ) 
Vocal, (i) Quiet, and (3) Mental Of these the 
(3) is higher than the (2) which is higher than 
the (1) ; so say the o-xpoundors of the meaning 
of the Vedas. Vocal Study is that in which 
other persons hearing the words clearly catch 
the sense. The Qiaet Study is that in which 
there is only a slight tremor of the lips nnd 
hence others cannot catch the words ; — this is 
a thousandfold more effective than the Vocal- 
The Mental Study consists in tho process in 
which the Agent only surveys in his Mind the 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 


77 


subject to be learnt, with duo conaidoration 
of tho relation of words nnd lottora, without 
any external movement Tho sages have 
defined Contentment ns a sign of happiness, 
consisting in the eenso of satisfaction at 
whatovor comes to the Agent in the ordinary 
course (without any special attempt on his own 
part). Cleanliness, 0 BrfihmaTjas, has been 
declared to bo of two kinds— External and 
Internal ; the former is brought about by tho use 
of clay and water, nnd the ]aUor*'consi8ts in 
tho purity of tho mind. Lastly ’ Adoration of 
Ood ’ consists in firm devotion to Siva through 
the functions of Word, Mind and Body in the 
form of Prayer, Reflection and Worship ' 
respectively.” 

In the above passage we have met with the 
declaration that injury inflicted in accordance 
With tho scriptures is ‘ Harmlessness ’ (it does 
not incur the sin of killing). But the idjury 
therein meant is that which is necessarily 
inflicted upon living things in the course of 
the cleaning of the Body — rinsing of ^tbe 
mouth and the like, — as well as those that 
are necessary to tho house-holder (e.g., tho 
slaughter of wild besets such as the tiger, etc.) 



78 yOGA-SABA-SA-NQIlAHA. 

The author of the BhOsya has declared that 
abst'nenca from slaughter in Bacnfices la 
of the ‘ great penanoes * — ' Devotion to God — 
which 19 Slid by the autlior of the BhBsya to 
consist in the surrendering of all one s actions 
to the Lord — includes also the worshipi 
mentioned in the passage just quoted from the 
Isvara-Glta 

Of the two— Restrauit and Obligation,— 
Restraint consisting m mere desisting (froi^^ 
certain abta, and hence being negative in 
character), is likely to be free from the hmita 
tions of time and space , and as euoh the 
author of the SiUras has called it the Great 
Penance' The Obligations, on the other han . 
consist in engaging (m certain aets, and hence 
being positive in their cliaracter), are, S'S 
such, conditioned by time and space , 
hence there is no such subdivision of it a® 
‘ Great Penance ’ 

Thus have Restraint and Obligation been 
described 

Next we describe Posture {Asana) The parti- 
es) Poature cular positions of ail living 
(Asas*) beings form so many ' po®* 

tures’ Of these, three arc the most important, 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 7& 

as mentioned in the I^vara-Gitd “The 
principal posture are the Svasiika, tho Padma, 
and tho Ardha ; — those are the most important 
of ail postures.' 0 Btahmanas, when one places 
tho soles of his two feet upon his two thighs — 
it forms the Padmasomiy the best of postures. 
0 best of men, when one places one foot only 
upon the other thigh^it forms tho Ardh^sana, 
an excellent posture for Meditation. Placing 
the soles of the feet between the thigh and 
Jsneo we have the Svastikasamr hWe do not 
enter into the details of Postures, because our 
subjoct-ftiatter is HHja-Yoga (in which Pos- 
tures occupy only a secondary position) Ibr a 
full treatment of all forms of Postures and the 
PuriScatiun of the veins and arteries, one 
should refer to worka on Hatha- Yoga. 

Posture has been desertbed. We now 
proceed to describe the Hegula- 

tion of Brcafh IPrmm’na) i 

threefold : (I) Pecaka, 
Exhalation, (2) Piiraka, Inha- 
lation. and (3) Kumbhaka, Holding. Pure or 
Absolute Kimbhtika is the fourth, says the 
Karadiya (theSrhannoradiya P«rt:»>3) : *' By the 
learned the Regulation of Breath is said to be 



so YOOA-SARA-SAiiGBAHA 

of four kinds ; (1) Recaka, (2) 

(3) Kumbhaka, and (4) ffunyaka. In the anima 
body the artery to the right (of the Spina 
oord) is called mgala this Has the Sun for 
its (supervising) deity and is said to bo 
birth-place of the PUrs [PUryoni]'. the 
artery to the left is called Tdn ; it has o 
Moon for its doity, and is said to be the birt 
plaoG of tbo Deities {Demyoni). Listen 
to ray teachings. Between these two is 6 
Susumna it is a very subtle arteryt i ® 
functions are) profoundly esoteric, and it n® 
Brahman for its dei\y. One ought to exhaio 
the air through the left (7<f3) ;“'and o*' 
account of this exhalation this process s 
■called Exhalation {Recaka). The aspirant is 
to fill his lungs with air by means of the rig 
(Pin^afa) and thisprocess is called Inhalation 
{Purafca) When the Aspirant inhales the 
air and holding it in (his lungs), site 
like a jar full of water-the process « 

called Holding {Kumbbaka). When ® 
neither exhales the air (in him) nor inha es 
the outer — this mental process is called the 
fiTflnjrafca form of Breath-Regulation. 
read in YQjnavalktta and others as follows . 



THE MEANS OP YOGA 


81 


“ Regulation of Breath is divided into three 
kinds (1) the lowest— Pwrofea, (2) the 
medium — Kumhhaka and (3) the highest — 
Recaka The lowest measures twelve ‘ units ’ , 
the medium tweiilyfour , and the highest, 
thirty-sii , thus has the difforcnGC of 
measures among the three been laid down 
by those acquainted with the subject ’ Here 
in Yojfuxvalkya, we find the different kinds of 
Breath Regulation mentioned in the order 
(1) Purcte, (2) Kurtthkdka, and (3) Bccaka , 
whereas in the Waradli/a-text quoted above, we 
have them m the order (1) Recaka (2) Furaka 
and (3) Kumbkaka The two are to be regarded 
as optional alternatives But the latter is 
only a fanciful order 

With regard to the above four kinds of 
Regulation of Dreath the author of the 
aphorisms adds the following particulars 
When in the beginning, the throe processes 
(Pura^a, etc ) aro practised together, they 
becotno conditioned by place, time and numbor, 
and then conio to be colled Long or Sliort 
{Youa Sutra, II, aO) The ' place’ of oxlmlalion 
lies within twelve inches (aftpu/as) of the tip 
of the nosQ , tins is lo be ascertained through 
0 



82 -YOGi-BAIlA-SAtiaEAEA 

a piece of reed or cotton. The ‘ ploce 
inhalation ranges from the head down to “ 
soles of the feet; this is to bo ascertaine 
through a sensation aunilar to the touc o 
an ant. Tho ‘ place ’ of Kumhtulka p™**® “ 
the external and internal places of 
©ihalation and inhalation taken toget er» 
because the fnnctiona of the breath are capa 
of being held up at both these ‘ places ; a” 

this is to be ascertained through the absenc^ 
of the two indicatives noted above (m 
tion with exhalation and Inhalation). “ 
we have explained the Regulation of Brea 
tts specialised by place. To explain 
specialised by time : This consisW in su^ 
well-recognised Rpecifications of time a® 
‘Exhalation is to be proctised for so many 
moments, the Inhalation for so manyt 
and the Holding for so many’. Thirdly. 
Bogulation of Breath le specialised by 
when tho throe kinds of Breatb-Bofful'^h®” 
are specialised by the number of ‘units o 
time (moments) beginning with twelve 
the passage from YOjnavalhja quoted above). 
Tlio epcoification of tho three kinds of Breath- 
Regulation by all tho tlireo— place, time on 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 


83 


number— IS only optional , and thsy are not 
to be understood as to be practised collectively, 
for m many Smrti^ w® meet with passages 
where the only epecification mentioned with 
reference to the Regulation of Breath, is that 
of tme Wlien, m due course of Practice, 
the Regulation of Breath named ‘ Holding,’ 
lasting for months and years together and m 
many places, subsists without the exhalation 
and Inhalation conditioned by place, time 
and number— then that Holding ib called 
Absolute and Pure, the fourth form of' Regula- 
tion of Breath ’ Such powers as that of 
roaming about in space follow this last form 
of Prtlnayama , as has been declared in the 
Fnsisi/ia Samhtta “ When after giving up 
Inhalation and Blihalalion, one holds hia 
Breath with ease, it is Absolute Kumbhaka 
One may practise this Holding either by 
Itself or together (with Inhalation and 
Exhalation) The latter courae should be 
adopted so long as the Absolute Holding is 
not attained, when absolute Holding has 
been attained, without Inhalation and Ex- 
halation, then there is nothing in the throe 
worlds unattainable for the Aspirant ” 



84 YOGA-SaBA-SANGRAHA 

The ‘unit of measure* with reference to 
Th. .i tto Begulatta o( Breath his 

uma wiih rejara described in in 

the aifferant parts n 

o£ Pranapama MdrUotldClia PurSUO • 

unit {rrultrii) consists of the time taken 
by the rise and fall of the eyohd. or in 
a single clap of the hands, or in | 
utermg of a abort letter ; for the mcasarme 
of the Eesulation of Breath, tweWe so® 
' units ’ have been prescribed." ‘Twe™ 
units' is the time twelve times that define 
aa the ‘unit'. Only “twelve 
been here mentioned, becouse tliat is 
duration common to all the three states o 
Hreath-Regulation. According to the Va?tsiha- 
SamhxtU however the Inlialation should 
for sixteen units, Exhalation, thirty -tvfo 
Holding sixty-four units. (In order to rccori* 
cile both wo say that) both may be accoptl- 
as being respectively the primary and t o 
secondary methods (of practice). 

A further detail with regard to the Resnla 
of Pr.. tion ©f Bfoath has been men* 
into pf.j. j„ mradiya and 

Hint ioa noQ prtg* . ,f/.T, 

"•“t- other Puraiyos; “Resuloiim 

of Breath is pregnant and noH-prci7«a”^ • 



THE MEA3JS OP YOGA 


85 


these the former is the higher of the t'wo. 
Regulation of Breath without the repetition of 
sacred Mantras and -Conteinplation is called 
Tforj-pregnani ; and that which is accompanied 
by both of these is pregnant." The Mantra for 
repetition is thus laid dovvninthe/s'voro-ffJicl' 
“ When the Aspirant holding his breath, .thrice 
repeats the Gayalrl together with the seven 
ViiQhrtis (in the beginning), the S'iras (at the 
end) and the Pratfava (one at both ends of it), 
this is what is called the Regulation of Breath." 
Yogi Yajfiavalkya, on the other hand, declares 
thus; “The Upward Breath and the Down- 
ward Breath having been reilrained, Regula- 
tion of Breath Is to be practised by moans 
of the Praijava, with duo regard to tiie unit 
of nieasuro." (Sco above.) 

Thi«, tho repolilion of tho iVajaro otano. 
is meant for tho highest class of ascotics 
(tho Paramahaibsas). It hns boon declared 
in the SmThs that (ordinarily) contomplation 
is to bo practised, through tho Inhalation and 
other stoRco ot Broath-Rcgulntion, at onoa 
navel, heart and forehead, tvith reference 
to tho forma of Brel, eld, ri?,u and S.m 
respectively. For the highest Aseei.c (the 



86 yosa-saua-sakobaha 

Paramahamsa) however, the only object of 
Contemplation has been declared to be 
Brahman. “The self-controlled Benunciate is 
to contemplate upon the Supreme Brahman, 

by means of the PranflWi” say tba Srartis 

Thus has been described the Regulation o 


Breath 

We next proceed to describe Abstraction 
{Pratyal^ra) Says the 
(5) Abdtr4rti#a iiya-ptirHna “0 best of 

sages, .hsntho Aspirant mtb- 

draws the senses attached to their severs 
objects and holds them m check, -that process 
ifl called Abstraction {Pratyahara) One w o 
has recourse to contemplation— without having 
controlled the senses — ^know him to be delude , 
his contemplation can never succeed The 
'holding of the senses in check’ consists m 
bringing them under one’s own control, 
making them follow one’s own wish Thus 
Abstraction has been described 

All the five factors of Yoga beginning 
■with Restraint (Yama) and 
ending with Al^tracUon 
.„,heb,dyci„.ny Restraint, 

Obhgation, Posture, Breath-Regulation and 



87 


THE MEA^ OF YOGA ^ 


Abstraction — constitute the controlling of the 
body, the breath and the senses We have now 
got to treat of the more important factors 
of it— tho three beginning with Concentration 
Whara-rta), all which consist m the controlling 

of tho Mind ^ 

Of theao wo first deecnbe Concentration {Dha- 

rana) The fixing of the Mind 
^jj^CBoeeniisiian ^ ^ particular spot IB called 

‘Concentration’ [DhGra-nS] 
That 13 to say, it consists in the fixing of 
the Mind on the spot where the ob:ect of 
Concentration is to be thought of These 
‘ spots ’ have been specified in the J^vara-QltS 
“ In the lotus of the heart, or in the navel, 
or on the head, or on the lop of a hill, the 
fixing of the Mind on such spots constitutes 


* Concentration ’ {DMranS) ’ 

Question “ We oan understand the specifi- 
cation of the spot m the 

.i,?,rVr".,.Sr oass O, the Meditetm of 

mch Obieeta e» taOBM atld 
tbo )*«• l-ow can any 
fcnowusfi, BpecificaUon be possible with 

roeard to the McdltaW" of DBor.m.naton 
between Sp.r.t and th. Attr.bt.teB,-or .n that 



Tlin MKANS or YOGA 


B9 


f Iho the form of fl’o olijcct of 

Moditition.—this conlinoity hoinp tinintor* 
fupted by tbo inlnj^iori of nny othtr function, -- 

tliH la ulnt constitulc^ ‘ Contcmplntion 
IDAj/fina) ; eg , tho Conlftniplation of tho Four- 
armed (ViMTju) nnd othe^ m tho lotus of Iho 
bcirt, tho Contomptiition in iho Duddhi-fiinction 
of Conscioiwnp**^ (Caitanya. the form of Spirit) 
as discerned from Buddlu , or the Conloniphtion 
of God m tlio KaranopHilhx (‘CnuMl Concomi- 
tant. Primordial Matter’). Tlio eamo^ 
teen declared thus m tho Uvara-Qii^'- "The 
continuous flow of tho Functions of tho Bnddhi, 
based upon Concentration on a particular spotj 
and untouched by any other funotiona, la 
called CoTXtemplatton by tho learned. 

Tho specification of tho lim® taken y 
Contemplation and Cominuruon 
5amad/ji) has already boon doscribod 

“''fooLplafon h». been 

„mt proceed tP flwPribe Com- 

(S) s.m.dh ^Sa«adh,). When 

under the .nflnenc «■» Cnntemptnle,! 06jee(, 
tho Oonton.plnt.nn (above deB=r.bcd) be- 
con,ee free («>n> »" 



90 


Y03A.SARA*SAKGRAHA 


‘Contemplation’ ‘Contemplated’ and’Con- 
templator,’ and continues to subsist entirely 
in the form of* the dontemplated object,--- 
we have what is called ‘ Communion ' (Samsdhi)- 
The specification ,c»f time has already 
. been mentioned (Sbe above.) There is one 
more difference between this (Communion) and 
Contemplation. Contemplation is broken nP 
when tho senses (of the Aspirant) happen to 
come into contact with such objects as are very 
attractive to him.* but not so Omrounion: as 
says the 5?nrft: “Then (in the state o 
Communion) the Aspirant having his mind 
fixed on Spirit is not conscious of any 
external or internal objects: just as tbs 
arrow-maker, having his mind engrossed m 
the arrow, knew not the king passing by bis 
aide." In the above definition of Communion 
the inhibition of othor functions does not com® 
in as a qualification ; because Inhibition being 
the principal factor (m Communion) it can 
be regarded only as an indicative feature. 
In as much as the ‘ mhibition ' appearing at 
this time loads to the direct perception of the 


contemplated object,— the said ' Communion 
becomes the final stag© of Concrete Meditation. 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 


91 


Objection: "If (as you say) Concreto 
Meditation consists only m ths 
inhibition or' suppression of 
functions at the time of Com- 
M.ditstii*'**' ‘ " mumon, then what is there that 
marks out the said suppression 
as the pnncipal of which the others are mere 


constituent factors? 

Reply This reminds os of what we hare 
already eiplained oboTe Ae a matter of fool, 
the Mind Itself is capable of apprehending all 
objects, being as it le, all-pervading, and of t le 
nature of illuminalion, like a mirror an 
yet on account of the defects due to the 
influence of other objects, tboro is no tlirec 
perception of the desired object, even though 
It IS pondered over Hence what serves as 
the direot cause leading to the direct per“Il«° 
of the contemplated object a the 
of the' functions' relating to the other obje« 
as It IS this suppression that constitutes ll 
o -cl (which 13 essential 

a6sence of impediments { 
for success) In this case Oommamon also 
success) factor, because 

wiT regard te the direct perception of the 
:„nL7ated -.".ect, « serves as the cause 



92 ^ YOGA'SARA-SANGRAHA 

only, through the said suppression of foreign 
functions (and not by itself). 

^ Thus have been described the three factors of 
Togabeginning with Concentration (t.e., Ooncon- 
tration, Contemplation and Connnunion). These 
three when directed towards a single object 
constitute what is called ‘ Discipline ’ SamijamU’ 
This ‘ Discipline ’ should be applied to all Stages 
of Yoga beginning with gross objeote, and 
culminating in the Spirit rightly discerned (froni 
other Principles),— as declared 
‘It ih to be applied to the Stages’ 

III, 6) ; and also by tbe SmrU : " One ought 
to blowly carry the Mind to subtle objects 
after having controlled it in relation to gross 
ones.” This however is only the general rule 
as has already boon roraarked before ; m 
special cases, it is fuuiid that through the 
Grace of God, or through the favour of the 
Spiritual Teacher, an Aspirant to Liberation, 
at the very outset, finds hie Mind capable of 
being fixed unon the subtler stages ; so that in 
such cases the Aspirant should not waste tinio 
in traversing over the previous grosser stops ; 
because the aUainment of the iiighor stage®, 
which" is the sole end of the earlier stages 



THE MEANS OF YOOA 


93 


has been already accomplished by other means 
(Grace of God, etc) This has been thus 
declared in the “ On® o^sbt to be 

intent on that one essential knowleds® which 
accomplishes one’s purpose, tho multifarious 
ness of knowledge is what impedes the progress 
of Meditation , On© who, thirsting for know 
ledge, moves from object to object, can never 
attain to the (real) object of knowledge even 


in a thousand time cycles ” 

Per this reason wo are going to describe here, 
for the benefit of aspirants of the higher degree, 
that process of * Discipline ’ which relates to tho 
Supreme Self only Ae for the processes of 
‘ Discipline relating to the discernment ° ^ ® 
Spirit from the Atlributeo, these we shall des- 
cribe only as subsidiary to the said hig er 
‘D.b„,p 1 i„c’ As regards the ' 

relatmg to the Supreme Self. ™ 

, 1. 4 .n the l^araaiya- 

It forth as described m tne ^ 

fJaribhaktxsudhodaya Says ftra ^ 

• r*ar having disoourbOd in 

best of Brahmanos, after navi. i. 

ness, I am nowje g 

whieh please taW p„mord.al 

Spirit 19 to bo known as »v 



94 TOGA-SiBA-SANGBAHA 

Matter by Aspirants to liberation, "with the 
help of Vedlnta-kexts, through association 
^with good people, through the favovir of the 
Spiritual Teacher and through one’s own 
exertion (3) Thus having firmly aoprehended 
the Self, the Aspirant should renounce all 
attachment, as attachment to other things is the 
pronounced enemy of on© seeking the One with 
out a Second. (4) The t^irant, connfortably 
seated in seclusion, patient, pure, alort and 
Composed, should exert himself to perceive 
the Self apart from Illusion (J/ays) w* 
ctibed in the Upanifads. (5) The Togin ought 
to turn inward the senses going outward 
(to the objects), hoving entirely closed their 
outward path ; just as Arjuna did in regard 
to a whole host of anows. (6) Having 
reduced the senses to their proper position» 
he should gradually install the Mind in Its 
peace within, like the king whose army has 
been turned back. (7) Wlien the mind has 
been installed within, the senses do not 
move, just as tho clouds become motionless 
on the disappearance of tho propelling 
(8) Then bo ought to fix his Mind on 
the Solf-^f the nature of puro Consciousness— 



THE MKA.IIS OF YOGA 


95 


■which IS the prapeller of, nod distinct from, 
the Body, tho l-pnnciplo and tha Thinking 
Faculty [Budiht) (9) He should ]om hie otyn 
pare Self, which wrongly regards itself as 
the doer and the enjot/er, to Fi§nu, the 
Universal Self— pore Consciousness and Bliss 
(10) The Human Self (Ulnflfmon), hitherto 
deceived by tho sense of separation, becomes 
now, on the accomplishment of Msditation, 
mereed in the Brahman (Supremo Self) -just as 
hail dissolves into water, and the flame into fire 


(11) 0 BrAhmanas this merging of the Human 
and the Supreme Selves is called Voga (union), 
-the highest of the high, the essence of 
all the Upamsade, to he kept secret by 
the sages (12) One should have ones Self 
thus merged into Brahman, of the essence of 
AbKiiuto Oonsoiousness having tho ‘ external 
and ‘mternal’ all absorbed within the Uni- 
versal Self (13) In duo order the Fopin 
knowing his Self, should first of all rosolvo the 
grosser factors of tho imivorso into the 
Supreme Self, and then Brndunlly he should 
resolve these inlc the eubtler factors thoreof 
(U) Having h.« Self thus constantly merged 
(in tho Supremo) tho aspirant hooomos euo with 



96 YOGA-SAItA-SANGKAHA 

Viynu ; because a mountain of salt cannot 
dissolve into water at one pinch (but only lO 
duB coiirsa of time). (15) BVra ifbon oatcf 
the trance due to the said Communion, e 
ought to look upon the whole universe as 
Visnu; and being devoid of selfishness and 
ogoiiam. he will have tho process of birth and 
ro-birth slackened. (16) After one has hm 
Buddhi resolved into the Supreme Spirit bJ 
constant practice, all his conscious aot® 
forthwith ceases spontaneously. (17) After 
his action should be only such as comes 7 
habit, and he shall not do any act either tempow 
or religious: Thus when ho becomes free froJn 
all Dharma and .<4d/iurmn, be becomes t 
Universal Self, and is called the /iranffu 
(Liberated While Living). (18) On tbe.^ecen£o 
of his body, ho becomefl omnipresent and « 
born no mora Thus have I explained to you 
the process of Liberation by means of t 
Meditation of Non-duality.” 

We are going to explain tbo inoro dimo' 
portions of tho above passaP®* 
„a‘.r'r Z (2) lu tl.obcBinuingonoi!'» 

,w.uuow.».. oscprtain from tlio Up.^ni?ads 
the general character of Self and Non-Sdf* 



THE MEANS OF YOGA 


97 


‘ c , the Spirit as discerned from Nature and its 
Emanations. (3) Having, tbrougb the above 
"leans, firmly realised the Self, and having as- 
certained It by means of Sravana (Listening) 
and flfanann (Contemplation), one ought to 
renounce all attachment, for the purpose of 
acquiring the direct perception of the Self ; by 
means of Meditation he should have recourse 


to the life of the ‘ Renunciate * ; ‘ The accom- 
plishraent of ntm-doality ’ gou>E ‘o b® described 
Icier on. is the otteinment of the second 
direct perception (of Self) or the attainment 
of Absolute Isolation (4) He next lays dopm 

what is to be done after renunciation: "Des- 
cribed in the'Upameads."— t c . loornt from them. 

"Apart from Mdyh,”— -C, Discerned from 
Kelute ; or " MAya" may stand for the Human 
Self ; Eecanse the objeel of knowledge beinc the 

Supreme Self, the Human Salt «<> '= 

mask over it, and consequently I ® " 

(Illusion, can he rigb^od-^^^ 

method of the nll^Pl 
ft„H=oulw^^ , brouter road. This lent 
'”T wn' iwraetiou ITValyaMra). The 
cTorua^ fectors ot Medi,at.cn-from Restraint 



98 YOGA 3AEA-BANGRAHA 

[Yama) to the Regulation of Breath 
y 0 . 7 m ) — are not mentioned here, because being 
only external, they are not essential Or we 
may explain the former half of (4) as briefly 

referring to the first four factors of Medita 

tion (8) and (9)— Having explained Abstrac 
tion the process of Discipline [Samyama) is 
next explained by these two couplsts The 
first mentions Concentration {Dh^^anU) con 
aiBting m the fixing of the Mind on the Human 
Self which la the locus of the Inner Euler, t ® 
Supreme Self , and the second couplet briefly 
lays down Contemplation and Communion 
The meaning of this latter couplet is this 
One 18 to merge the Human 
‘wrongly’ or ‘needlessly conceives itself W 
be the doer of acts and enjoyer of the results 
which IS yet jpure on account of ifs being 
devoid of limitations — into the unconditione 
Supreme Self— the Self ensouling all entities 
from the Physical Body up to the Human Se 
That IS to say, one is to contemplate on 
the Supreme Spirit wherein all Humun 
Selves have become merged (10) In 
to explain the cognisabiUty of the hc 
above referred to, the next couplet shows 



THE MEWT3 OF YOGA 


99 


by Ml raaniplo tlint lliD said ‘ raorcini! ’ is Ihb 
ono roalily. Tlio idea ol tbo Human Self 
tiorac apart from tlio Supremo Solf is duo only 
to Illiraion; booaueo biicIi dilTorontiation fa 
conditional (not real) and aa anoli fa oapablo 
of holdinR for a very abort tinio only, and 
conaconontly, like tho Prodnota of Matter, Ima 
only a nominal oxistenro. In roality, how- 
over, when tlio Homan Bolt bccomoa otiuipped 
with Yoga, it liocomos merged into Brahman 
like hail into water, a» tbat is of its essence, 
" Ibrnnoya"— that to— 'oiroct'. Tho rest Is 


olcar. 

Tims wo ihfivo do^wjntod tho cipht factors of 
Moditation. With regard to 
those boioR tho factors (of 
YoroI um Aphorism has 
Dityiiif SiniidM jijcntionod a poculiar fact. 
Tho lost three of these. Oonconlration, Ce"'”'"- 
plalion and Coromiiiiion are mcro closely nlhod 
to Concioto Meditation than tho first live : 
beennso these Vivo lend only to tho pnrlfleal.on 
of tho toty, tho hfe-lnonth, nod thesonsos; 
whereas the throe lend .0 tho Pliri/icadoa of 
(V lliml and Is Uio very basis of 
And turlhor, oven 'in tho ahsonce of tho Hr* 



100 


YQQA'SARA-aAHGRAHA. 


five, Yoga becomes possible, (specially) through 
the previous accomplishment of these five 
during previous lives; whereas Concentra- 
tion, Contemplation and Communion are such 
factors of Yoga as make it possible, 
only when they appear along with it ; 
hence without these (practised during the 
present life) Yoga is not possible. It is 
for this reason that Abstract Meditation, being 
free from even these three, is said to be with- 
out a substratum (NtrSfambatia) ; because we 
have already explained that Abstract Medita- 
tion of the Bhavapratyaya class (see above) is 
only for those particular Deities whose innate 
Knowledge and Dispassion have been brought 
about by Concentration, Contemplation and 
Communion practised in their previous lives. 

Thus ends the Second Section of the Yoga- 
sura-Sangraha in which have been described 
the Factors of Meditation. 



SETTIOy in 


OF THE ‘POWERS* OR ‘PERFECTIONS’ 

Next we have to descntw the Powers resulting 
^ , from Discipline {8aihyama}. 

tMatment «{ perfoc- And OUT motive in doing BO is as 
follows: (1) (For those desiring 
the powers), the ellaying of all these desires, 
which are impediments to knowledge and 
other desirable things, (2) the ascertaining of 
the accomplishment of the various Disciplines, 
and (3) the raising in the hearts of Aspirants 
to Liberation feelings of disgust with re- 
gard to these (Powers). This latter fact is 
borne out by the following aphorism, which 
embodies the doctnno acknowledged by all 
systems: "From indifference oven to 'this - 
(Power), on the dcstrucUon of the scejLioi 
BvilSr (follows) Iwlalion 
jS'Miro, Iff, 50.J 



102 


YOGA-SABA-SAKGRAHA 


Ab the objects over which the Disciplines 
are practised are endless in number, the 
Powers resulting from the Disciplines are also 
endless in number. Of these, however, only 
a few have been desenbed in the Sutra and 
the BhQsya. For fear of making this treatise 
very lengthy, we touch upon only the most 
important of the Powers, making a eelection 
from even the few mentioned in the Siitra 
and the Bldisija. Titus what we are going 
to describe as Powers resulting from 'Disci- 
plines' are only those in the form of the 
(1) Th« p«Nip perception of the objects 

»i*n at ii,« of Discipline. Because the idea 

«f SarnyanJi 

that the Disciplines are con- 
ducive to the direct perception of these same 
objects is already obtained in a general way 
from the following Sutra — " To one whose 
functions have been suppressed, thero comes 
concentration and ccrasubstantiation in (matters 
relating to) the perceiver, the perception and 
the perceived— 08 in a transparent gem" 
[Yo^a’Sdtra, I, 41 ]; and further because tho 
knowlodgo of things other than those to which 
the Disciplinos relate has been declared os 
resulting from thoso Disclplinesj "Frora tho 



OF THE ‘POWERS* OE ‘ PERFECTIOITS ’ 103 


Discipline bearing upon the Sun, there follows 
the Knowledge of the Univerae.” [Yoga-BMra, 
III, 26.] As a matter of fact, however, 
it must be understood that it is only the 
knowledge of other objects that is mentioned 
here as the Power arising from Discipline 
which culminatee in the direct perception 
of its own specilic object. When the Dis- 
cipline bearing upon one thing brings about 
the knowledge of certain other things, it is 
only through the force of faculties bom of 
Meditation ; — just as & particular sacrifice 
(which consists in offering certain substances 
to certain deities) leads to the attainment of 
a particular form of Heaven 

"At the outset we describe those two Disci- 

„ plines which lead to the direct 

Sanyamas Icaa , 

in£ to tpiriiaiipn'. perception of the Self, as this 
teptjon ^ important 

of all. Says the aphorism: “ EZrpericnce con- 
sists in the undifferentiated conception of the 
Matter and the Spirit, which are totally 
distinct (from one another) ; the knowledge 
of the Spirits proceeds from the Discipline 
bearing upon one’s own object as distinct from 
■what IS foreign to it” [ F<^a-5afra, III, 35.] 



104 ' YOaA.•^inA.•3A^^QBAIIA 


This aphorism defines ‘ oxperionce ’ bpcauso 
one ought to practise Discipline with regard to 
the knowledge of tho Spirit as discerned from 
the knowlodeo of tbo Buddhi in the courso 
of experience. The moaning of tho SCtra 
Is as follows: Tho Matter {Sattva) is the 
limitation common to tho cause and tho offoct ; 
—tho Spirit (Purusa) is the spectator in (a 
Universe) made up of Matter, and this (Name) 
is common to the Human ns well as to tbo 
Supreme Selves ; even In the face of this 
glatlng difference between the two, —being 
as they are, quite distinct, like light and 
darkness, and having contrary properties,— 
there arises, from mutual reflection of the two, 
a certain ' undifferentiated conception ’ (mixed 
notion of the two) consistinK either in the 
non-apprehension of the difference between 
the two (Spirit and Matter), or in the notion 
of identity between the two, — i.e., the wrong 
notion of identity involved in the notion that 
‘knowledge’ consists in the function in the 
form o£ Sound and other objects of sense, 
tliia notion of identity resembling the one 
that there is between Fir© and Iron in a 
piece of red-hot Iron; — this undifferentiated 



OF THE ‘POWm* OR ‘PERFECTIONS’ 105 


conception ie what congtitutos ‘ oxperionco ’ 
in the primary sense. Says the Bhasija ; 
" Experience consists in the comprehension 
of the dosirablo and undesirabJe forms and 
Attributes, not properly discerned.'' The said 
two conceptions ate naturally given to acting 
conjointly. On the one hand, there is the 
conception of Matter forming a Limitation, 
in the form of sound, etc , which are ‘ foreign 
objects’; and on the other, there is the con- 
ception of the Spirit with regard to its own 
object In the form of Knowledge ; and from 
the Discipline bearing upon this latter, cul- 
minating in the direct perception of the 
difference between the two (Matter and Spirit), 
— proceeds the Knowledge of the Spirit 
there arises the direct perception of the Self 
through the cognition of such properties there- 
of as Unchangeabihty, Omnipresence, Etornal- 
ity, Purity and Freedom (or Absoluteness); That 
IS to aay, the Aspirant becximes conscious of 
the difference ot the Spirit from all pheno- 
nienal existence In the Sufro we have the 
epithets “ for one’s own object," {SvMha) and 
“for the foreign object” (ParflrfAa) simply to 
indicate the ground of difference between the 



106 YOGA-SABA-SANGRAHA. 

two conooptions. ParOrtha ‘ Foreign object ' 
is that which brings about the experience and 
liberation of every one else save the Aspirant 
himself i whereas •S'uSrifta, ‘one’s own object,’ 
is that which acoomplishes his own experience 
and Liberation. ‘ Experience ' here stands 
only for the apprehension of things. 

Objection i " Aa a matter of fact, the ‘ concep- 
tion relating to the Spirit’ is only a form of 
the Spirit itself ; how then can the ‘ Know- 
ledge of Spirit’ be the result of ' tiisoiplln©' 
culminating In the direct perception thereof ? 
(Such Knowledge being » included in the 
‘conception relating to the Spirit') it would 
have been already accomplished (together with 
the conception spoken oQ.” 

Keply: Kot so; (your objection does not 
hold) : because just as the apace limited by the 
Jar is different from space in its real form, so 
the direct perception of Absolute Consciousness 
as apart from all pbenomenal existence, — 
which constitutes a perfeotion (S’lddfti) in 
itself — is different from that of a portion there- 
of, which is linuted by the functioning of 
words and such objects— as apart from the 
function Itself, 



OF THE ‘POWERS* OB ‘PERFECTIONS’ 107 


Thera is no other means of the direct 
IKjrcoption of the Spirit save 
of ipiriiuai percep. tlio Discipline ' just described. 

Oonsoquontly, all aspiranta to 
Spiritual Knowledge sliould practise this very 
‘ Discipline ’ ignonn^ all other methods which 
only lead to the acquisition of the powers, 
Animan and the rest (to bo described later 
on);— and this is the esoteric doctrine which 
is borne out by our own experience, and also 
countenanced by the Siftkhya as well as the 
Yoga systems. During the 
‘>>® ‘Ksolpllne,’ 
ya^ there come about also other 

' powers named (a) PrQrihfto, 

(6) /Jrauajja, (c) Vedana,ld) Adar^a, (e) ^suflia, 
(/) Vdta, which are indicative of the Know- 
ledge of the Spirit, (o) Praiibha (intuition) 
consists in the capacity to quickly apprehend 
even without any visiWe meace, things, that 
are hidden or remote or past or future or subtle 
and BO forth ; and the knowledge due to this 
capacity is the Pratibha (Intuitive), which is 
a ‘ power ’ (or perfection) of the Mind, (b) siini- 
larly the capacity to hoar remote sounds con- 
stitutes tho power or perfection of the auditory 



108 


yoga*sSra.-sanoraha 


orRan called ffravaijo (Auditory), (c) The capa- 
city to touch remote and other hke objects 
constitues the perfection or power of the 
tactile organ, called Vcdana (Cutaneous per- 
ception) (d) The capacity to see remote objects 
constitutes the perfection or power of the 
visual organ called Adarffa (Visual perception) 
(e) The capacity to taste remote objects con- 
stitutes the perfection or power of the sensa of 
taste called <levt2da (the Quetatory perfection). 
(/) The capacity to sense the smell of remote 
objects constitutes the perfection or power of the 
Olfactory Organ, called Vata (Olfactory per- 
ception) These six perfections or powers of the 
SIX sense organs are impediments to that Com- 
munion which leads to spiritual perception, and 
yet the perfections or powers (SiddAw) are 
said to constitute tlie accomplishment of man's 
purpose, only from the viewpoint of the 
man who, through the enjoyment of hense- 
objects, has fallen from the state of CJotnmunion 
and has his mind perturbed and turned out- 
wards towards the oxtcmal world Bays the 
Aphorism '‘These ore impediments to Com- 
munion (but) perfections or powers in the 
active stage [Foga-Sttfra, IIT, 37 ] For these 



OF THE ‘POWERS’ OR ‘ rEBFEOTIONS ’ 109 

reasons Aspirants to Spiritual Knowledge 
should not seek after these powers ; and even 
if they come to him unasked, they should 
be ignored. 

Thus ends tho explanation of the PiscipHne 
which leads to that perfection which consists 
of Spiritual Knowledge. 

After this we have to describe the Powere 
r . about by * Discipline ' 

•uhing from s«tr>. relating to the peroeiver, tlie 

yjfflaiwjli tegni 

to^ p«reuv«r porccptioii and the perceptible, 
pomption aad th« which lead to the four kinds 
percepteWt ConcTete MeditatioD accom- 

panied by Argumentation, Deliberation, Joy 
and Self-Consciousness. In as much as, as a 
general rule, the Disciplines are accomplished 
in the order of— (1) the perceptible, (2) the 
perception, and (3) the perceiver, — we first of 
all describe the Discipline relating to the 
Perceptible. The ‘ Perceptible ’ are the Elemental 
substances; these again have 
five forms, on the basis of the 
to*!?!* idea of non-differance between 

the cause and the effect, 
and also between the object and its pro- 
pertr» These five forara of the Elemental 



no 


YOOA-SARA'3ANGRAflA 


substances are: (1) Gross [Slhula), (2) 

‘ Essence ' {5?;arfipa), (3} Subtilo (Sw/csma), (4) 
Immanent (^InvajfR), and (5) ‘ Fruition ’ {Artha‘ 
mttva). (1) The specific entities, Sound, Touch, 
Colour, Taste and Odour— as also Space, Wind, 
Fire, Water and Barth, — constitute the ‘ Gross ’ 
form of the Elemental Substances. (3) 
The genus in the shape of Akasaiva, 
Vayutva and the like constitute the ' essence ’ 
of the Elemental Substances. (3) Tho 
Rudimentary Elements of Sound and the rest 
(iSTalidfldiianTnfltras) constitute their ‘subtle’ 
form. (4) ‘Immanent' (Anvaya) is what per- 
vades ; this is Primordial Matter ; this Matter 
consisting of the three Attributes Sattva, Bajas 
and Tarruia constitutes the form of the 
Elements called ' Immanent ’{Anuaj/a). (5) And 
(lastly) the purpose of the Spirit — Experience 
and Liberation — relating to the Attributes 
constitutes their fifth form, ‘ Fruition ’ {Artha- 
vattm). When with regard to the Elemental 
Substances constituted by ihese five forms, 
there is ‘ accomplished’ Discipline culminating 
in the direct perception (of the object), there 
results through those same forme a Perfootion 
consisting in the ‘ conquest of the elements ’ ; 



OF THE ‘POWERS’ OB ‘PEBFEOrmS’ 111 

says the Siiirat “ From Discipline relating to 
the Gross, the Essence, the Subtle, the Ira- 
iiianent and Fruition, (result) Conquest of the 
-Elements.” [ Fo^-SiWra, in, 44.] This ‘con- 
quest’ lies in the fact of the elements being 
under the power of the Aspirant — that is, in 
their functioning in accordance with his wish. 
Though the ' I-principle ’ (Ahafthsra) and 
the -‘Thinking Principle’ (Biiddht) also are 
causes of the elements, and as such immanent 
within their ‘forms’ (according to the theory 
of the identity of cause and effect),*— yet 
like the results of sacrifices, the idea 'of 
the accomplishment of tbe^e Disciplines is 
based entirely upon scriptural authority,— 
and no ‘ conquest ‘ of these two* Ahankura and 
Buddhi, has been mentioned in the scriptures 
as following from ‘ Discipline ’ relating to these 
two;— it is in iriew of this fact that the 
Discipline relating to those two forms has not 
boon mentioned in connection with the ele- 
ments ; though it is going to bo mentioned in 
regard to the sense-organs. 

From the * Conquest of the Elements’ 
proceeds the thrco-fold ' perfection ’ consisting 
in lA) Attenuation (a^tToan} nnd the rest, 



112 


yoga-sAra-saiigraha 


(B) BodUy perfection, and (0) Non-obstruction 
by tho properties of the Elemental Substances. 
Of these (4) the eiRht'*herfootions' or 
‘powers.' ‘Attenuation' and 

The eijht pccfcc. ,y • 

ijQni-an>n«». thc rcst hsive been tbu«s enu- 


™* menated in the : (1) 

‘Attenuation’ (Aijfman), (2) ‘Inflation of the 
Body ’ [ilakiman), {3) ‘ Levity ’ [Lagkman), (4) 

‘ Attaining by the Senses’ (PrQpti), (5) ‘ Irresis- 
tible Will ' {Prukdmya), (6) ‘ Supremacy ’ 
consisting in tho application of one’s power to 
(nW cibiQcta) seen or heard of, (7> ‘ Independence ’ 
{Fflffjfa) consisting m Non-attacbment to the 
Attributes, and (8) ‘ Fulfilnsent of Desires ’ 
{KamimsSytta). Of these (1) 'Attenuation,* 
consists in the power of reducing one's body, 
to the size of an atom ; similarly (2) 
* Inflation ’ consists in that of enlarging one’s 
body to an enormous extent. (3) ‘ Levity ’ leads 
to the lightness of the heavy body to mich 
an extant that, like a floss of cotton, it floats 
in the air. (4) * Attaining by the Senses’ 
consists in such power os that of touching 
the Moon by the fingortiis even when standing 
on earth. (5) ‘Irresistible Will* consists 
in unimpeded reach of the will over all 



OF THE ‘POWERS’ OR ‘PERFECTIONS’ 113 

objects ever seen or heard of, such as wator, 
etc., Heaven and the like. (6) ‘ Supremacy ’ 
consists in fche’power of making the operation 
of all ^elements and elemental substances in 
accordance with one’s own will. (7) ‘Inde- 
pendence’ lies in the capacity of retarding the 
functioning of the elements and elemental 
Substances, and of one’s self not being 
subject to their influence. (8) The ‘ Fulfil- 
ment of Desires ‘ is the eighth perfection, — 
e.p., the power to turn poison into nectar and 
utce versa, and the like. 'Bius have the eight 
Perfections— Attenuation » and the rest— been 
described. 

(D) Bodily Per/edton consists in beauty, 
freshness and toughness of the body. 

(0) ' Non-obstruction by the Properties of 
Elements ’ consists in the fact of the properties 
of^arth, etc., in the shape of solidity and the 
like, not offering any obstacle in the way of 
the Aspirant’s body. That is to say, the 
earth does not obstruct the functioning of his 
body by solidity ; and consequently the physi- 
cal body of tho Aspirant is able to go through 
the mountain, or Uvo inside a picco of stone. 
Similarly water, by Its fluidity does not wot 



114 


YOGA-SABA-SANGEAHA 


the body , the hot fice hams it not , the 
mobiio wind does not move it, and lastly, 
even uncovering Space serves to cover his 
body , BO that he becomes invisible even to 
persons possessing great occult powers 
Thus the Perfections arising from Discipline 
relating to the perceptible have been des- 
cribed 

We next describe the Perfections resulting 
from the Discipline relating 
raSnUi^Ti to Pcnxptton tOraham) Per- 
«ptaott etoode for thst by 
meat}s of which things are 
apprehendedr-t e , the eleven sense-organs 
These also have five forms,— -on account of the 
identity of caaso and effect and of that of the 
object and its properties These forms are 
(1) Perception {Orahaija), (2) Essence (Swinipa), 
(3) Egotism {Amtia), (4) Immanenca {.Anvaya)^ 
(5) Fruition (.Arttevoffra) Of these, ‘Percep- 
tion consists m the functioning of the Fonse- 
organs (2) The sense organa themselves 
constitute the ‘ essence ’ (3) The ‘ I-principle ’ 
IS Egotism , the Thinking Principle also is 
included under this (4) * Immanenoe, as before, 
consists in Primordial Matter constituted 



OF THE ‘POWERS’ OB • PERFECTIONS’ 115 


by the three Attributes. (5) Fruition is the 
same as before (i.e., as in the case of the 
GrUhya-Satnyama explained above). When 
with regard to the sense-organs, each of 
which is an aggregate of the aforesaid five 
forms, there is. through these five forms, 
Discipline culminating in the Direct Perception 
(of the real character of such senses), then 
there results a perfection consisting jn tjie 
'Conquest of the Sense-organs’. Says the 
Sutra i " From Discipline relating to Perception, 
Essence, Egotism, Immanence and fVuiti'on, 
result ‘Conquest of the Sqnse-organs’. [yoga- 
Sutra, in, 47.] Prom this conquest proceed 
the three further perfections ; (1) ‘ Velocity as 
that of the Mmd ’ (JlanojffwVtc), (2) ‘Unim- 
peded Action’ {VtkaraT^abbava), and (3) the 
' Conquest of Matter * [Fradhamjayitia). Of 
these the ‘Velocity like the Mind ’consists in 
the acquiring of exceptional mobility of the 
body : it is by means of this faculty that 
Great Sages appear in a moment befopo their 
disciples merely on the latter’s thinking of 
them. The second, ‘ Unimpeded Action.' 
consists in the acquiring of such faculty ns 
enables the senses to function with regard to 



OF THE ‘POWERS’ OR ‘ TEIlFECrnONS ’ 117 


supremacy over all beinga .—as says the 
Sutra- "Supremacy over ali beings and 
omniscience Cappear) Uie moment the discrimi- 
native ‘Knowledge of the Matter and the Spirit 
Os attained)" [ Fopa-S'llfra, 111,49] This 
particular porfoolion is called (Sorrowfess, 
Fts'ofe) on account of the Aspirant having 
attained all that is desirable, and thus being 
free from all kinds of sorrow This perfection 
implies the capacity in the Aspirant, like 
Qod, to direct the operations of all things, 
Bupretnacy over all beings, that is, tlie 
irresistibility of his will with regard to Matter, 
Spirit and other things Ommsaence will be 
described later on Another name for omm- 
science, which consists m dtscrxniirtative 
Knowledge, is Taraka . because it is brought 
abciul by Discipline relating to the Discrimina- 
tive Knowledge of the Matter and Spirit, 
and as such steers the way of tho Spirit 
clear of the Cycle of BirUi and Rebirth 
Tins omniscience is thus defined by the 
Sutra " The TQraka consists in Knowledge 
resulting from discnmination, which is omni- 
obiectivG, sompcr-olqcotiTO, and instantane- 
ous" [Yoga Sutra, III, 54} Wo meet with 



X18 


yOGA-SARA SANGRAHA 


a similar definition in tbo Vtsnu-Puma 
“ I^oranco is like donso darkness , like the 
fiattiB cit a lamp is Xh0 knowledge den\ed 
through the senses, and 0 Brahmargi ' the 
Knowledge resulting from discrinimation is 
like the Sun 

resulting from Discipline culminating in direct 
perception relating to ih© conception of ones 
own purpose as apart from foreign purposes , 
while here we are treating of oinntsctence and 
the rest as Perfections resulting from the Dis* 


ciplme culminating m Spiritual perception, 
relating to Spirit as distinct from Matter 
{Buddkisattva, te the three Attributes of 
■Nature) This is the difference between what 
we have said here and what we said on the 
previous occasion 

Having thus described the two Perfections 
H gh t p r Discipline reUt- 

fection— lioiiiian jng to the PerceswBr, tllB 
* ' Suira goes on to treat of 

another the highest Perfection overtop 
pmg all others ‘ From indifference even 
to this (perfection), through destruction of 
the seed of evils (results) Isolation (i?aiva(ifa) 



OF THE ‘POWERS’ OR ‘PERFECTIONS’ 119 


[Fotja-SSfra, HI, 50.1 The meaning of this 
8Mra is this: All evils in the shape of 
disorders {Klesa) and actions {KaTma) 
—which aro the seeds of (the tree of) 
Birth rind Rebirth— having been utterly des- 
troyed by Spiritual Knowledge, there arises 
(in the Aspirant) Dwpasslon, the idea of 
* Enough,’ with regard to the two Per- 
fections just mentioned (Omniscience and 
Supremacy over all Beings) ; and from this 
Dispassicm follows the Perfection in the form 
of Isolation {Kaivalya). This is thus described 
in the Uoksa-Dharma section of the Mab&* 
bharata : “ Dispassicm constitutes the highest 
process of Liberation ; and from Knowledge 
proceeds Dispassion, which loads to Libera- 
tion.” That is to say, if, on account of the 
knowledge remaining imperfect, there is left 
(in the Aspirant) tbo everlasting longing for 
Otnciscience, then, in that case, the two 
aforesaid Perfections resulting from Disci- 
pline come in as otetaclea in the way of 
the highest Perfection of Isolation. 

Thus the Perfections proceeding from all 
important Disciplines have been described. 
How Liberation is attained without any 



120 


yoga-saba-samgraha 


notion of the Perfeoticms fmding T?ith Omni- 
science, has already been described. Nov? 
we are going to describe the process of the 
accomplishment of tins Liberation (without 
the Perfections or Powers). The queslion that 
arises ia — “ (a) Does tho Aspirant attain divine 
state while still in the physical body (human 
and the rest)? — or (ft) when Atteniiaiian 
and other Perfootions have appeared,— then 
— la there any need for any cause or agency 
other than the qualities brought about by Voli- 
tion and Meditation ? ” — and this question is 
answered in the following iSw^ra— “ Change 
of kind results from the filling up of Primordial 
Matter." [ Fopa-S'fitm, IV, 2 .) The mean- 
ing of this 18 as follows: The development 
of the human* and other lower kinds of bodies 
into the celestial and other kinds of bodies 
IS brought about by transmutation [literally, 
filling up) of these specific forms of the 
Attributes, of SaWw, Hajas and Tatnas (the 
cjonstituent material causes of all bodies) 
which are capable of producing the celestial 
and other higher kinds of bodies. With regard 
to this • traustnutatioo ’ (filling up) the merit 
and other agencies brought about by the 



OP THE ‘?OWERS’ OB ‘PEBPEOTIONS’ 121 


Aspirants' Volition and Meditation, tend to 
remove the obstacles in the shape of Dement 
and the like and as such are merely the auxili- 
ary cause and not the direct cause urging 
the constituents (of the bodies) to activity ; 
because these constituents are, by themselves, 
capable of all sorts of developments (t.e., 
changes) \ in this way the independence of 
Matter or ITature (the Iklaterial cause of the 
Universe) is lofc undisturbed. Says the S^ra : 
"For (the transmutation of) the constituent 
cause the auxiliary (cause) ie ineffioient; 
from it proceeds only tho piercing of the 
covering, as (m the case of) tho agriculturist.” 
(Fopa.iSjitra, IV, 3] Her© the "filling up 
(transmutation) of the constituent cause ” 
includes also ‘the discarding’ thereof; and 
tho " change of kinds” also includes Atlcnim* 
tion (Antman) and the other Pcrfoctiono. Tims 
then, from tho transmutation and discarding 
of tho constituent cause, there proceed, in due 
course, all tho Perfections From all tins we 
como to tho conclusion that tho instantaneous 
enlargement of the bodicsof Vftmnna. Nrshiiha, 
VarAlia and olhors, was duo to the solo 
/rnnjmu/nhou 0 / /fte consitiuenl C<7hhc. ' 



122 


YOGA-SARA-SANGItAlIA 


Similarly the contraction of the whole ocean 
when drunk off by Agastya, was due to the 
discarding of the constituent particles. Body- 
Multiplication (when one and the same 
Personality enters several bodies) [Kd.yav\iuha) 
is brought about by the active congregation 
ot ftiB ctmatttuent parttc\« the dt'Seftent 
kinds of bodies. 

Quegtton: 'VDuring the process of Body- 
Multiplication. has the Aspirant to produce, 
out of the matter of his own mind, a different 
Mmd fitted to each body adopted by him ?— or 
does he direct (the operations of) all kinds 
of them, by his own Single Mind?'' The 
decisive answer to this question Is given in 
the SSfra — “The created Minds (proceed) 
'solely from Egoism.” IFbpa-Sufra, IV, 4.) The 
meaning of this is as follows : Egoism is the 
‘ I-principle ‘ {^katikardSy and out of this 
Principle there proceed, by the mere will 
of the Aspirant, the many Minds fitted to the 
different bodies. If it were not so, it would 
not be possible to have, at the same timo and 
through the same Mind, in different bodies, the 
mutually incompatible elements of Ex- 
perience, Meditation and the like. That is to 



OF THi: ‘POWERS’ OB ‘PERFECJTIOUS’ 123 


Bay, (in accordance \riih the theory of the 
same Mind for 4\11 bodies) vro could not explain 
the fact of the Omniscient Vignu having 
adopted ignorance through his own (Omni* 
Bcient Mind) at the^time when he had the body 
of Rama and acted his part. And further, we 
find in the Smrtfe the mention of mutually 
incompatible actions by the same ascetic in 
different bodies: “One (body) jonjoys objects, 
another performs austere penance ; the Master 
of Meditation creates as well as uncreatos 
many bodies.*' The creative Mind, however, 
Is only one, which ts the efficient cause of the 
activity and cessation from activity of all 
tho created Minds; says the 5flfra: “In 
the diverse tendency of the many (created 
Minds} the impelling Mind is only one (tbe'^ 
creative Mind}.** [ Fojra*5'fi<ni, IV, S.J How- 
ever, wo do not hereby totally reject tho 
possibility of a einglo Mind occupying several 
bodies; because tho will of the Yoffin is 
unfettered. In the same way is also explained 
the creation of the world by ffirajjyaffarMa, 
os being duo to the transmutation of the 
Constituent Cause. The tmn#.rnulntion of the 
Constituent Clause implies also the connection 



124 YOGA SABA SAKGRAHA 

(of the Yogin) with the hmitotions of other 
living haing« (whose liodie« are occupied) , 
and it 13 by such connection with other living 
beings that^ the ascetic creates (objects of 
enjoyment such as) elephants, horses and the 
like and enjoys them 

The Perfections duo to Birth, etc , also should 
be understood as proceeding on the same lines 
as the abovp descaribod Perfections due to 
Meditation The difference ho’wevet vs thvs 
that Liberation is brought about by only that 
Mvnd which has been purified by Meditation, 
and not the Mind that has come from Birth 
Perfections (due to Birth etc ) have been 
described as of five kinds, in the Sutra 
‘The Perfections are produced by birth, 
herbs, incantations austonly and commu- 
nion’ [Tcga Sirfra IV, 1 ] The Perfections 
due to birth are those of Attenuation 
and the rest belonging to the Deities , those 
due to herbs belong to the Asuras — m the 
shape of great strength art of making of 
gold and the hke , those duo to tnconfafions 
are the capacity of moving m space and the like, 
brought about by means of special incanta 
tious those due to au^eritij include tlie 



accomplishmeiit of ones wish by means of 
penances , and lastly, those due to Commimion 
have already been described (nte) The 
Perfections attained by Frahladaand others, 
brought about by devotion, are included in 
those due to wstentu, as says the Setfh 
"By a tinge of devotion, is produced the 
highest inexhaustible Dharma 

Thus Biiils the third Section ofMhe Ycgasurt 
saiignlia of ViinJnsBliitiu ui which ire de'cnh 
ed the Pertectioni arising from Meditition 



SECTION IV 


ISOLATION 

We have explained the Perfections or 
Powers attendant upon Meditation. Now we 
ate going to describe the primary aim of 
Knowledge and Meditation — viz., Isolation. 
With, reference to this we have the 
aphorism: “Isolation consists 

IsohtioB— K • 1 • . ... 

T*iv«-dtfbed eod 10 . tho tettogfession ol the 
tipiiiMd. Attributes bereft of the 

Spirit’s purpose; or the abidance of the 
Sentient Faculty in its own essence." [Pope* 
Sutra, IV, 33.] The term “ Attributes ’’ » Sattva, 
Rajas and Towwk as developed into Buddhi. 
" Isolation "= Solitariness ; and this consisting 
in their mutual separation, belongs equally to 
the Attributes and the Spirit. Discriminative 
Knowledge leads to the higher Dispasaion 
this brings about the Absolute ‘ retrogression,’ 
— t.e., dissolution— of ihe Attributes which 
have been auxiliaries to the Spirit, and which 
are bereft of Its purpose ; and from this 
follows their absolute separation from the 



ISOLATION 


127 


Spirit ; it does not mean their destruction ; 
aa says the Sutra : “ Even though destroyed 
in regard to him whose purpose has been 
served, it is not destroyed, as it is common 
to others besides him." [Yoga-Sutra, II, 22.] 
This is the Preliminary Isolation, pertaining 
to Primordial Matter. The Second (Final) 
Isolation is the abidance of the Spirit in Its 
own essence, which is no ether than the 
Sentient Faculty itself, dissociated from the 
limitations imposed in the shape of reflection 
(oast upon it by Matter). In both cases, 
however the end is the same— wa. : the 
(ottaioment of the) Soul’s purpose, the extirpa- 
tion of pain. Hence the aphorism : *' What 
is to be shunned is pain not yet come." 
[Yoga-Sutra, II, 16.J ‘Ihis doctrine of ours 


Tbe yoga viear of 
MaUUoB rautullad 
with tho Sankhyi. 
theVcaaata, the 
VaUaaika asd lfa« 
NyayBTievn. 


is not incompatible with the 
Sfiiikhya doctnno, as set 
forth in its first aphorism ; 
“ TTio final aim of the 
Spirit is ahsoluto extirpation 


of the three kinds of pain." (SaftHya- 


5u(r<i, Ii 1.] The Vedantfets however hold that 


Liberation consists in tho merging of tho 


Human-Self into the Supreme-Self. And our 



128 


YOGA.-SAEA.-BASGRAHA 


doctrine la not inconastont with this either ; 
becsause the ‘ merging* mentioned here, is only 
the Non-separation of the Human-Self from 
the Supreme-Self, on the dissolution of the 
limitations attaching to the former .-'just like 
the merging of the rivera into the ocean. 
And this ‘ merging * ultimately ends in tho 
Human-Self ceasing to exist as a separate 
entity (other than the Supreme-Self). The 
Vatsesikas hold that Liberation consists in 
the destruction of all * speclBc qualities ’• This 
too U not inconsietent with our doctrine ; 
because we can take the limitation, in tho 
shape of the ‘Specific Qualities,’ figuratively, 
as standing for that wfach te conditioned by 
that limitation, and thereby take ihedesfruchon 
of those qualities also in the figurative 
sense (of destruction of pain). Lastly, the 
NaiySifikas hold that “Liberation consists m 
the absolute cessation of Pain ” ; this is the 
same as our own doctrine ; — the only differ- 
ence between us lying m the fact that we 
assert that the ‘cessation of pain’ is the 
purpose of tho Spirit, in the relation of ‘ the 
Experience and the Experiencer and not in 
that of ‘iniierence’ (constituent relationship) 



ISOLATION 


129 


(as hold by tho Naiyanllcas). We cannot 
allow the assumption of the 
sp-callcd ilco-l^cddofins that 
“Fmal Llbomtion consists in 

tho attammont of Eeorlasting 

Bliss " ; becauso wo can find no aphorism in 
support of this in the rccOBnised systems of 
philosophy. Vedanta and tho rest, and becauso 
it IS repugnant to all (a) Bruti, and li) Smrti 
Isxta, as also to all reasoning, (o) As instances 
of Srutis precluding pleasure from the state 
of Liberation, wo have the following—" (1) 
One who has attained knowledge renounces 
Pfeosurcand para " IKaHioiwin.rad.n, IS.l and 
(2) “ Pleasure and para do not touch one (who 
has attained to knowledge) without physical 

body," [C/iOndoayoponmnl.Vin, Jii.l.I (W As 
Smrtis we have the following . The agent 
will cross over tho illimitable and turbulent 
ocean of Birth and Bobirtb, when ho comes 


to regard all pleasure as paral-a man 
merged into the Supreme Self through 
Knowledge and Aotiea, is never oue^d 
by pleasure or by Jinm (c The 
•reasoning’ (ovotthn.w.ng the Neo-Vedaii 

theory may bo thus sumnied up) : If Liberation 





130 


yoga-saba-saSgraha 


were a positive product. It would bo destruct- 
ible; and if (to avoid this you assert it to 
be) evorkstinB, then, it would always bo 
an accomplished entity, and as sucb could 
not be the ‘aim* (to be attained) by the 
Spirit. It would not bo right to assort that 
Liberation consists in the attaining of the said 
everlasting pleasure ;-^ecao 6 e this explanation 
also will he subject to the * two horns ' of the 
dilemma as to Its being permanent or im- 
permanent. Nor again will it be correct to 
assert that the purpose of the Spirit lies in 
the ‘ removal of Ignorance ’ and other obscurers 
of the ever-lasting pleasure*, because in 
common parlance tlie man's aim is also always 
found to consist Id the experiencing of pleasure ; 
and farther, no * obscuring ' is possible, because 
Consciousness is eternal (and hence not subject 
to any obscuring). (Tlie Neo-Vedantic objects) : 
“ If it is 80, what would be the explanation of 
those Sruti and texts which speak of 

‘ Supremo bliss ’ (as constituting Liberation) ? ” 
We reply: this objection has no force; as 
very good explanations of such texts are 
afforded by the interpretations provided in 
the Treatises on Liberation: For example, 



ISOLATIOK 


131 


we read in the Smrtis as follows: “(In this 
world) all ie pain, thoro j'a no pleasure, — 
pain alono is what is continually experienced. 
The name ‘ pleasure’ Is applied to the ‘allevia- 
tion of the pain of the pain-stricken ' ; longing 
for pleasure is pain; and real pleasure lies 
in the cessation of both pleasure and pain.” 
Such passages, havinginterprated ‘pleasure* as 
abounding in pain, give it the name of pain ; 
and give the name of pleasure to the cessation 
of sucft pain (t>., pain in the form of both 
pain and pleasure), and the reason is that this 
is what is acceptable (to the Spirit). It is 
to this effect that we have the SQfikhya^Sutra : 

“ (The name 61(39 is given) to the cgssation of 
pain, only in ite secondary or figurative sense *’ 
[V, 67.1 ; and *' ('fbe cessation of pam is called 
61(58, only) aa eulogising Liberation for the sake 
of the dull-witted” fV, 68.J ; as for the attain- 
ment of Bliss, it is only an inferior ‘ Liberation ’ 
enjoyed in the celestial regions of Brahma. 

Thus brieCy has Isolation been explained. 

The essence of tha Science of Yoga bas 
The wioiiine up been briefly described. Nothing 
of the treatise- jiiore of the Science of Yoga 
is needed for aspirants to Liberation, 



132 


yOGA.-SARA-SAlJGRAHA 


In the Saiikhya-siiTXi we have entered into 
. a detailed di^ussion of things •, 

Then«tur*of 

ji»crimiRaiivf and do not dilate upon it 

knowledfis eiplain- , r ^ ^ 

ed in the SsnUiya- hBTO fOT fear Of DSing tOO 

prolix. 

‘God’ also has been described at length in 
OUT treatise on Brahtnan*— the 

God treated of ia 

detail in trealUee £raAm(2a(zr^a, otc., oud foT toe 

en Brahman. brOVlty, H© IS DOt 

dealt with here. Such themes ' as those 
regarding Creation and the like should be 
accepted in this system, in the form in which 
they have been set forth in the Sartkhya 
eystem, in accordance with the principle that 
* the doctrines of an allied system are to 
be accepted,’ and also because they are 
not incompatible with any of our own 
doctnnes. 

■Whatever portion of llie Yoga doctrine has 
been criticised by the Sankkya 
differta^ brtwtM — sucb OS thoss relating to 
God, etc., — should have been 
treaVAaf mwofkl discussed and established here ; 
mw'”® been already 

done in niy treatises on the 


Vedanta and the Nyaya and in so far 



ISOLATION 


133 


as ‘God’ IS concerned, two doctrines 
were loft untouched oven by 
.“.''i.- Ihcse-UT Ulthedocinnoof 
Sphola, and (B) the all- 
perviding character of Mind 
Qmsixiuently wo now hriedy establish 
these by refuting tho criticisms (against these) 


urged by the SUhlJttja 

(X) Sound 13 of three kinds (1) The object 
of the organ of speech, (2) tho object of the 
organ of hearing, and (3) the object of the 

Intellect alone (1) Tho Sound conditioned by 
the different parts of the mouth-throat, 
palate, etc -is the object of the orger, of speech, 
aa It proceeds from them (2) The Sownd 
produced by sound, which is on© step removed 
from the organ of speoeb, and la located m 

the ear, is the dbjecl of the organ of h^nng, 

being perceptible by it (3) »» f r* ike 
■Jar’ howeroi ore the object oftheIntM 
alone —because, as will be 
Sew/'''"”"" eaplained hereafter, they are 
U j.u no the Intdloct only To these 
appre en name Bphota, because they 

“,.T'’dette) obiec^ 

SuTa worT^a’ui. forre of iSpheto, 



134 


yoga-sAra-sanghaha 


IS somolhing different from the ieUers 
as severally uttered by tho organ of 
speech because cadi letter (pronounced) 
lasts only for one moment, benco no 
unison of these being possible, we could 
never got at what we call a “ word,' and 
as such, the utterance thereof could not 
bring to mind any object (as signified) (if 
we did not assume this Sphofa, a name 
applicable to the word as a whole, apart 
from the letters constituting it) What 
produces this Sphofa is a single effort of 
a particular kind (on the part of the Agent) , 
for if It were uttered by several efforts it could 
not be regarded as one word , and it would not 
be able to denote any object What discloses 
or nianifeata this Sphota is the cognition of 
the last letter (of the word) as qualified 
(preceded) by a senes of letters in a particular 
order It is for this reason that the Intellect 
ifl regarded a* the ‘ apprehender’ of /Jp/iofo , 
specially as the said ‘senes of letters in a 
particular order can be apprehended only 
by the Intellect, and hence it is much 
simpler to attribute the agency of tho mani- 
festation of the word Sphota to the cofftiitton of 



ISOLATION 


135 


the sajd sorioSirathw* than to any other ogonoy , 
because of the rolation of co extensiveness (bet- 
ween the cognition of the Sphofa-word and that 
of the particular orderof letters) It is for this 
reason that the Sphofa cannot be apprehended 
by means of the organ of hearing, also be- 
cause It IS impossible for the organ of hearing 
to apprehend a ‘ eenes of letters in a particular 
order,’ — such as Gha followed by ‘ fa ’ and so 
forth , for the simple reason that each letter as 
perused exists only for a single moment, which 
makes any unison of them into a single unit 
impossible , and the only explanation left open 
IS that each letter os pronounced loaves an 
impression leading to ita ‘ remembrance,’ and 
all these ‘impressions’ and ‘remembrances’ 
(memories) subsist in the Internal Organ (Mind, 
Intellect), which with their help apprehends 
the word as a whole 

ObiBction “ W© may apply the name ‘ word ’ 


Neceuity of pos 
tulfttiof a SphgtR 
apart from tlia Con 
(tiloeot 1« 1 1 er a 
questioBtd 


as miplyiog tho power of 
coniiotu^ the special meaning 
to tb© manifestation of the 
Spht^Of vtz , the last letter 


preceded by a sones of letters m a particular 


order, and eo have don© with a supernumerary 



136 YOGA SZBA-SANGRAHA 

SpJiofc altogelhOT— according to tbe maxim 
which declare* -th-it whon the action of the 
effect can bo done by the cause, there is 
no nece'’3ity of postulating tho separate 
existence of the effect This is what has 
been declared in the Sa^ra [V, 57 ] 

* There is no such word as SpAofa, because of 
cognition of ordinary sound and non cognition 
(of Sphota)' 'The notion of unity also of 
the word can be explained by the single 
ness of the last lottor as preceded by the 
senes of letters m a certain order 
We reply to the above as follows Tour 
mothod of reesonmg would 
ibw*" tL* B»<e»* strike at the root of the notion 
tl^rf'spSoVr™'’ ^'1 composite wholes (for 
the functions of all these 
could be explained through their constituent 
parts) In accordance with the maxim that 
you have juat quoted it would be far 
simpler to attribute the causal oeency of the 
fetching of water, etc (m the case of the 
water jar) to the various parts (of the ]ar) 
as qualified by its non constituent cause in 
the shape of the patUcular combination 
(of the paxts) tlan to any other forea^ 



ISOLATION 


137 


agency ; and the idea of the unity of 
the -water-jar also woul^ ,be ^explained 
like the unity of the forest (that is. by 
taking all the parte collectively). If y™ 
urge that ‘‘atoms (which form the parts 
of all substances) being In themselves impor- 


ceptihle, if all substances were only aggloraero- 
tions of these, they conld not bo perceptible ; 
and fur this reason we should posit a 
composite whole”— then we could urge the 
same reason for the Spliota alsoi The parti- 
cular order of letters being mode up of 
moments, which are imperooptible in them- 
selves, if words were nothing more than tho 
last letter as preceded by a series of lettcK,_ 
then it could not be poreeptible ; oonscnuently 
we must postulate n SpWa(a name applicable 
to the word as a leWel Further, our pest^ 
lalion of the SpUa being based on Sriif. 

r'l of ordinary Proofn To explain : The 

atisenc „oiton of tho throe maMs— 

.<7r«flS having 8P0KV« « 

tt ”eS,' Brab'ma, 
Vienranrsiva, declare o fourth mOW of the 



138 


YOGA-SARA-SANGBAHA 


aamo, ns indicating the Supremo Sraftman, 
over and ahovo'. the Ibroc aforesaid doitica 
of the Pran^va And this fourtli mafrfl, apart 
from the first three, is noUimg more than the 
S'p?io?a It 13 this Kamo which has also been 
called the jdrd'te-mafrfl'— Half-ayllable It is 
only when, liko a composite whole, the letter 
and word are not separated, that ono half 
may be said to bo the ‘letter’ and the othor 
half, the ‘word* Just as the whole can 
never bo talked of as apart from its parts, 
ao a word cannot be uttered apart from its 
constituent letters Hence the SmrUi “The 
Ooddeea is the Half-syllable which is unpro> 
nouncible separately Purflno— 

Durgisaptasati ] 

Question “ We adroit the explanation of 

the Half-syllable but what 

a^tldE', “re '0”““ of *0 mda 

(the nasal aoand produced by 
a sernioircle w) and the Bindu (the dot over the 
semicircle v) ? " 

Answer When the Prat}ava is being pro- 
nounced, there is a pecular sound resembling 
the blowing of the conoh or of the pipe, winch 
IS called Nada , and the final stage of this 



ISOLATION 


139 


Nada, which is extremely subtle and almost 
equal to nothing, ie called Btndu. 

Thus it is established that' the Composite 
‘ word • IS something other than the composing 
letters; so also is the Sphota. It it is urgod 
that “ on the same grounds, the sentence would 
also he a Sp/iotu-our auswer ie^thore being 
no reasons against It, let it he so . 


The SpJiota has boon established. 

(B) We are now going to establish the aU- 
pervading character of the 
Tiii«Hp«rr»diig vjjnd. The Internal Organ 
r.ro’«.'(AS'.‘£ (i,{|„a) of each individual, 
being tho suhstratmn of all 
residua-imtrressions left by his 
ildternin,-n.ust be 

It will not he right U, urge that". he 

(which consists in the said -.dual and such 
other properties belong that 

may invoi ^ pleasure or pain 

one person bring, a ^ 

t he Sa ^l* atomic (as tho Naiyayitas 

S- hccaiiso asccics are capable of hav, OB 



VOOA-SATlA-BAjJnnAllA 


uo 

tlif porcrplion nf llic tiniver^c mono 

niul llip simp time {ivhich cniild not bc 
po^iblo if liie Intomnl Orpan v\pro oJofwic); 
and in Ibp of \\\v- non-ft*cpiic 01*0 tbc 
simuUnncou^ fiinctionlni: of inoro thnn ono 
spiisP'Orpnii i« pQ'-'^ililc'—as In t!io ontinp of n 
larpc cake. II ujH not f>o riplil to nrpr iiirit 
"in ihn ca«p of nKOlic^, thoro Ih n spodnl 
‘Mn'-e“contnc\' ns n of Modlitolion (by 
virtue of thcif hnvinK the peruoption of ll»e 
nljo1ouniv(?r>o) (Dlwcaii'eall perceptions 
boinp oxplicnbto through tlic ordinnry nomml 
'contacts'— fiuch ns 'conjunction,' 'Inherence 
\n the con)oint' nnd so forth, it would be nn 
unnccos.v\ry multiplication of owumptions to 
poswlato n Bcpamte mode of ‘contact’ for 
the ascetic ; (2) because such an assumption 
■would lead to a mutual anomaly (i.c., irregu* 
lanty in the method of the two contacts; 
the ordinary one and the one peculiar to the 
ascetic) ; (3) and lastly, because the assumption 
of a Bub'clasa within the class of ‘perception,’ 
would lead to a putpo^-less corapiicution. 
In our system however the Internal Organ 
being capable of apprehending all things 
{simultaneously), all that is done for it by 



ISOLATION 


141 


such faculties a6 tasutt from Meditation is the 
removal of the coverinB of ‘ darkness ’ ; and it 
Is an established fact that in deep sleep, Tainas 
(Darkness) is an obstacle in the way of the 
funotioning of the Mind. Nor can the Internal 
Organ be said to be of the middle sise (neither 
atomic nor all-pervading); because in that 

case it would be destructible at the Dmversal 

Dissolution and so could not be the “bstmtnm 
of the Force (Destiny) and other residua. Thus 
it follows by elimination that the Internal 
Organ must bo all-pcrvading. Says ‘b® ' 

“There arc throe Akasas. 0 boauliful-faood 
one, (-) that of theMina,(!i) thatof Oonsclons- 
ness, and (3) the ordinary Akatal ofthMO 
know the Akasa of tho anscioosness to ho 

the subtlest.’’ 

"If the Intemnl Organ wero 
all-porvoding, then, thoilgli 
.1 ii" we coold explain its limned 

irir-rt;'". funCioningv on thotasis rf 

SinVhy* tj,p covoring of Tamas, etc. 

ypt wo couW not explain snch 
phenomena ns its poing up to 
Hence tho S’Vtkhtja-Siilrn 


Objection: 
Tbe»U perjBdini 


BolSorltr of . ‘Ji* 
J«tUrttioit of »• 
molianbyopo"* * 
la Ih* 5ro«tl». 

Other regions. 


O'"-" 



142 


“yOQA 3^^*8AWORAHA 


all pervadmei becaxise ifc is an orpnn ’ and ‘ on 
accoant of STrali texts declaring its move- 
ment [i6id,V, 701 Further, matters stand- 
ing as they are, the nioreflifnple course would 
'be to postulate the ‘covering* as affecting 
the (all-pervading) CJonsciousncss , wherefore 
then should Ihero he any assunlption of an 
all pervading Internal Organ? Here also it 
IS necessary to assume a ‘covering’ asobBtruot- 
ing Knowledge or Cognition ** 

To the above we moke the following reply 
declaring the 

m’tSsXrf.n movemrat of the Internal 
laihciaiititiaacf Organ 13 lo be explained, as 
m the case of the Self, as 
referring to the accidental limitations in the 
ebapo of life breath, sense organs and the 
rest and further, the character of the Internal 
Organ being two fold — as causa and as 
product— movement would he possible to the 
Internal Organ by itself, m its form of the 
Product Such two fold character of the 
Internal Organ is necessary to the Sankhya 
also for if the Int^nal Organ were a 


product only, then we oould not explain the 
Siinkhya Sutra [V 25] Virtue, etc are 



ISOLATION 


US 


properties of the Inte^al Organ ” ; if on the 
other hand, it were'ateolutely eternal (being 
cause only) then we c^d not explain the 
aphorigros declaring the production of the Great 
Principle and the rest (as the Internal Organ' 
is included among these latter). The assertion — 
that “the 'more simple course would be to 
postulate ' Covering * ns affecting the Con- 
sciousness only is not right ; because for 
absolute Consoioosness, there can bo no 
covering’ in the shape of impediments to 
Knowledge. Nor will it be right to urge that 
“ For Cbnsciousness, its connection with the 
cibiect itself may be ossumed to be the impedi- 
ment to the Reflection (of the same object) and 
such other phenomena " : for even bo, the per- 
ception of Self would not bo possible; because 
in the abaonoo of an organ oe the medium, it 
is not possible for anything (here Sol f) to be 
related to itself, in the form of Reflection, etc. 
Then again, the fact of the Internal Organ 
bavins been recognised os the Substratum of 
volition, action, olc., the percoplions that wo 
have in dreams of tho jar and other things 
are regarded to be tho phases of that s-irno 
organ, on the ground of tho propriety of tlio 



144 


YOOA-SARA.SAVaPAHA 


co'cxtcnsivenesa ot Iho cause and cftocl. 
These very phascn (of the Internal Orsan), in 
the form of the jar and other thitiRs, arc rcfiocted 
in Conscionancss, and thus it is that the jar and 
other Ihlnga coma to bo perceived in their exter- 
nal forms ns apart from tho Internal Orpan. 
Hence what is meant by * Covering ’ must 
be Boroothing that hinders tho developments ' 
of the said phates. Lastly, the perception of 
‘coverings’ over the oxlcrnal organs leads to 
the inference of an internal covering over the 
Internal Organ also. That there is no 
‘ covering ' over tho Self haa been declared m 
several Srutt and Smrti texts. 

Objection : “ If ihe Internal Organ is all* 


Ob]«etMa — How 
c*s Ihe all perviil 
lej Inleraa) Orjaa, 
ha an effeel 7 Reply 
—It ciD be etplaio 
ed on the |[rcuad el 
liimtatione, like the 

AVita (thelimited 

farm of which la 
caaaed by the na 
turaofAhaiawhch 


pervading, how can it be a 
product?” 

Beply: This objection has 
no force : because just as 
from the all-pervading Boot- 
Akaga, there proceeds its limit- 
ed phase, tho Product-Akasa 
— 80 in the same manner, 


we could explain the production— from the 


’H«e la tiie text we meat with oa apparently aJiBurd 
reading—fofl naiiwl r«fctoin— which would mean that 



ISOLATION 


145 


Eoot-lnimal-Orga-n, thAugli ohanBe in 
another Attribnte.-if its limited phase, the 
limited Internal Organ. This is borne out 
by Sruti and Smrti texts also. 

The all-porvading character of the Internal 
Organ has been established. 

(O We next proceed to establish the ex- 

Tk.noti.. .1 istenoo “'o 'o™ 

time traced to tha 'moments’. The Nytiya 
the Yaisesika declare 
Mym! vdiolti that like the Self,' Time also 
..d S.,d.b,. ri.,. j taiivisible ! 


and this single entity gives rise, by 
means of varying limitations, to tbe idea 
of •seconds,' •minutes,' 'hours. days, 
•menths' and so to«b; and consistent y 
with this, they discard any separate enhty 
in the shape of mommt> (Xaipa). T 
SlSMpa, on tho "Uier li^il; “rirer 

rrtorm‘of'OPoaU-per,ading.mtity- 

of* momDiitB, hours, 

“Spao® 

• hla for the internal organ; but 

no coverir« is P®”1® Lgn dtotinctly laid down on 
as such a conclude that the reading la 

:SS"',S:prop.rr»d.i«»a'»'''>'»- •Ml ri 



146 


YOGA-SlRA-flAirORAHA 


irom AkSSa,” etc. ISHitoyo-SCiro, II, 12] 5 
thereby also declares that it is ifciis^o itself 
which, under diverse limitations, Rives rise 
to all the notions of time, from a ‘moment’ 
up to its highest mftasvuto. Both these theories 
are untenable. There ia no ‘ fixed ’ limitation 
through which the notion of ‘ moments,’ etc., 
could be brought about either by Aka^a (as 
according to Sshkhjfa) or by the ‘Infinite 
Time* {according to KyUya). To explain: 
Others (Sahfcfiya and JTyaya) postulate, 
—as the ‘limitation’ leading to notions 
of ‘inomanta,' etc., out of AkOSa or 
‘ Infinite Time,'— some such things as action 
of atoms, as characterised by connection with 
the next point in space (declaring the interval 
of Time, between the connection of the atom 
with the first and that with the second, as 
one unit of time). Here, if the said action, 
spohen of as characterised by the said connec- 
tion, be of the nature of cither the object 
qualified, the qualification and the relation 
of these two,— then, in as much as all these 
threB are held by others to he permanent, they 
cannot lead to the notion of ‘ moments,’ etc. 
If, however, the said action be other,than 



ISOLATIOH 


U7 


these three, then, it is only a difioront name 
for what we regard as Time, under the name of 
‘ moment,' distinct from all permanent things. 
This Time cannot he either Ikasa .(ss heiii 


by the Smkhija) or the ' Infinite Time las 
held by the Niflya), because the reiuislto 
basis for the notion of a 'moment' being 
afforded by Time as postulated by us, thETO 
can ha no need for assuming any other basts 
for it as conditioned by the' said 'Time . 
Such qualified ‘ moment' (postulated by us) 
is fleeting, being an extremely transimt 
phase of Matter; so that it does not involv! 
the postulating of anything opart from 
Matter and Spirit. The different mea.nrei 
of Time— days, months, etc., up to the bighes 
Time-measore-aro the outeome of the oen- 
stituent particles of the said • and 

there is uo ground for * 

existence of 'Infinite Time. The u 

of 'now,' 'to-day 'and the like are also an 
1 -.-♦inna of tbo said monient . 

The''e°to™lity of Tune mentioned in Smtis 
and Smtlis may be explained a^eferrmg to 
.,a uninterrupted flow. »ua it is established 
that all that is necemary for explaining the 



148 


YOOA‘SABA-SANGRAHA 


notion of Time is to postulate tho existence of 
Time, in the shape of moments, and not any 
such thinR as ' Infinite Time’ or Aka^a 
In this samo manner oil our doctrines 
that are opposed to the Sdrikhyn, may lie proved 
by the intelligent aladenta. 

Thus ends the Fourth Section of Yoga-s^ra- 
sahgraho, -wherem is described teOLATlOS 


Thus ends the YOG A-SSRA.*SASGRAHA 
of Vijfltoa Bhiksu 


FnnMd by A K Sk«tt~'at the V«.Dt» 

AUjsz Uttdrnt 



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YOGA-SARA-SANGEAHA 

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